The Holy Quran,which is the principal source of religious thought in Islam, has given full authority to the external meanings of its words for those who give ear to its message. The same external meaning of the Quranic verses has made the sayings of the Prophet complementary to the words of the Quran and has declared them to be authoritative like the Quran. For as the Quran says: "And We have revealed unto thee the Remembrance that thou mayst explain to mankind that which hath been revealed for them" (Quran, XVI, 44). And, "He it is who hath sent among the unlettered ones a messenger of their own, to recite unto them His revelations and to make them grow, and to teach them the scripture and Wisdom" (Quran, LXII, 2). And "And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it)" (Quran, LIX, And, Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example" (Quran, XXXIII, 21). It is quite evident that such verses would not have any real meaning if the words and deeds of the Prophet and his silence and approval were not authority for us just as the Quran itself is. Thus the words of the Prophet are authoritative and must be accepted by those who have heard them orally or received them through reliable transmission. Moreover, through such a completely authentic chain of transmission it is known that the Holy Prophet said, "I leave two things of value amidst you in trust which if you hold on to you will never go astray: the Quran and the members of my household. These will never be separated until the Day of Judgment." According to this and other definitely established hadiths the words of the Family and Household of the Prophet form a corpus that is complementary to the Prophetic hadith.The Household of the Prophet in Islam have authority in religious sciences and are inerrant in the explanation of the teachings and injunctions of Islam. Their sayings, received orally or through reliable transmission, are reliable and authoritative. Therefore, it is clear that the traditional source from which the formal and external aspect of religion is derived, which is an authoritative document and which is also the basic source for the religious thought of Islam, consists of two parts: The Book (Quran) and the Sunnah. By the book is meant the external aspect of the verses of the Holy Quran; and by the sunnah, hadith received from the Prophet and his revered Household. Traditions of the Companions In Shi`ism hadiths transmitted through the companions are dealt with according to this principle: if they deal with the words and actions of the Prophet and do not contradict the hadiths of the Household of the Prophet, they are acceptable. If they contain only the views or opinions of the companions themselves and not those of the Prophet, they are not authoritative as sources for religious injunctions. In this respect the ruling of the companions is like the ruling of any other Muslim. In the same way, the companions themselves dealt with other companions in questions of Islamic law as they would with any Muslim, not as someone special.

The principle that the hadith possesses validity, as attested by the Quran, is not at all disputed among Shi`ites or in fact among all Muslims. But because of the failure of some of the early rulers of Islam in preserving and guarding the hadith, and the excesses of a group among the companions and followers of the Prophet in propagating hadith literature, the corpus of hadith came to face a certain number of difficulties. On the one hand the caliphs of the time prevented the writing down and recording of the hadith and ordered any pages containing texts of hadith to be burned. Soemtimes also any increase in activity in the transmission and study of hadith was forbidden. In this way a certain number of hadiths were forgotten or lost and a few were even transmitted with a different or distorted meaning. On the other hand another tendency also prevailed among another group of the companions of the Holy Prophet who had had the honor of seeing his presence and actually hearing his words. This group, which was respected by the caliphs and the Muslim community, began an intense effort to propagate the hadith. This was carried to such an extent that sometimes hadith overruled the Quran and the injunction of a quranic verse was even considered abrogated by some people through a hadith. Often the transmitters of hadith would travel many miles and bear all the difficulties of travelling in order to hear a single saying. A group of outsiders who had worn the dress of Islam and also some of the enemies within the ranks of Islam began to change and distort some of the hadith and thus diminished the reliability and validity of the hadith that was then heard and known. For this very reason Islamic scholars began to think of a solution. They created the sciences concerned with the biography of learned men and chains of transmission of hadith in order to be able to discriminate between true and false hadith. The Method of Shi`ism in Authenticating the Hadith Shi`ism, in addition to seeking to authenticate the chain of transmission of hadith, considers the correlation of the text of the hadith with the Quran as a necessary condition forits validity. In Shi`ite sources there are many hadiths of the Prophet and the Imams with authentic chains of transmission which themselves assert that a hadith contrary to the Quran has no value. Only that hadith can be considered valid which is in agreement with the Quran. Basing itself on these hadiths, Shi`ism does not act upon those hadiths which are contrary to the text of the Quran. As for hadiths whose agreement or disagreement cannot be established, according to instructions received from the Imams they are passed by in silence without being accepted or rejected. Needless to say there are also within Shi`ism those who, like a group among the Sunnis, act on any hadith whatsoever which they happen to find in different traditional sources. The Method of Shi`ism in Following the Hadith

A hadith heard directly from the mouth of the Prophet or one of the Imams is accepted as is the Quran. As for hadiths received through intermediaries, the majority of Shi`ites act upon them if their chain of transmission is established at evry step or if there exists definite proof concerning their truth, and, if they are cocerned with principles of doctrine which require knowledge and certainty, according to the text of the Quran. Other than these two kinds of hadith, no other hadith has any validity concerning principles of doctrines, the invalid hadith being called "tradition with a single transmitter" (khabar wahid). However, in establishing the injunctions of the Shari`ah, because of reasons that have been given, Shi`ites act also on a tradition which is generally accepted as relaible. Therefore it can be said that for Shi`ism a certain and definitely established hadith is absolutely binding and must be followed, while a hadith which is not absolutely established but which is generally considered as reliable is utilized only in the elaboration of the injunctions of the Shari`ah. Theological Arguments and Rightful Bases of Islamic Beliefs

Preface:

All praise is due to Allah, who has converted us to know Him, and the greetings and peace be upon the chief of the sent Ones, Muhammad, who has favored us with his mission, and upon the chief of custodians, Ali, who has also honored us with his guardianship (Wilayat), and others of his successors, the infallible Imams, specially the Allah�s expected remainder and His proof to all mankind Imam Mahdi (peace be upon him), may Allah honor us to be one of his servants in his occultation and manifestation, and continuous damn be upon their foes till the day of judgment. Thereafter, whatever is the most important to all of the learned and religious scholars are the knowledge of theological arguments and the rightful bases of Imami�s beliefs, because it is the base of a faith that one can save him from uncertainties.

Learning of such arguments is the most honorable and excellent knowledge, rather it is the most dignified science among all branches of knowledge, including physics, biology and other sciences which lead us to know Allah closely, and by every scientific issue there will be discovered one of the structural laws that rule over the nature, which indicate towards being its legislator, and learning a such valuable knowledge is possible only by knowing Allah. Of course the Almighty God has enabled us to abstract a sufficient quantity of theological arguments and the rightful bases of Imami�s beliefs from the Holy Qur'an, the quoted Traditions from the Holy prophet and the infallible Imams (peace be upon them), the philoSophical, theological, interpretation and other subjects of books and compile them in this book. The first and the last praise are due to Allah. At the end I offer the best whishes to all of the sponSors of �THE INSTITUTE OF AAL UL BAIT (A.S) LE AHYAA IT TURATH�, especially to its respected Director, executives and whoever tried their best to compile and publish this book. All praise is due to Allah, may He bless us His forgiveness and pleasureness. Abu Talib Tajleel Tabrizi The Theological center of Qum, Iran Holy mont of Ramadhan, 1417 AH

The Theology

The Proveness of Necessary-Existence the Innovator of Universal and the Creator of the World (May Exalted His Glory)

In the Name of God the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate All praise is due to God and the greetings and peace is upon the seal of the Prophets, and his noble Descendants and damn be upon their all foes. The theology is something natural for all men Indeed man has some senses by which concepts something naturally; the theology is one of such thing, because the Holy Qur'an says: [Then set your face upright for religion is the right state, the nature made by God in which He has made the man.] [1] In whatever is quoted from the words of the Ameerul Muamineen (Commander of the Faithful) Ali peace be upon him says:

�I never did behold a thing unless I perceived God be for it, with it and after it.� And in whatever is quoted from his peace be upon him supplications, says: �O whose essence reveals His essence.� And in whatever is quoted from the sayyed Al shuhada (Chief of the Martyrs) Imam Hosain's (A.S.) supplication on the Arafat Day, says: �How with a something which existence needs Thee can bring a reason upon thee, is there other than Thee have more manifestation? When Thee became absence, so that Thou needs a proof to indicates upon Thee, blind be the eye that can not behold Thee watching it, and the servant whose deal does not share Thee love is loser.� The necessity of being the theology something natural The proveness of Allah�s existence is needless of any kind of argument, but we mention here some of arguments as following: The first theological argument: The argument of truthful people The author says in Al-Asfar[2]: This is the policy of truthful people that give a witness upon His Exalted existence, then give a witness upon His attributes by it, and then give a witness upon His actions by His attributes�. Certainly the Divine Book has referred to this policy of truthful people and says: [Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things?] [3] I say: This argument can be stated in various ways, but we mention two of them, which are closer than other to it under here:

The First statement:

Necessarily every one realizes the external beings, or in other words: He realizes the existence[4] of beings, and obviously it is known that there is a Necessary- Existence being among them, because otherwise all of the beings will be possible- existence, and needy of a creative cause in their existence. It is also openly known that it is impossible to be all beings possible existence and needy of other in their existence, because the other of all beings is non-existence, and certainly the non existent will never be counted as a cause to existent. Thus necessarily it could be said that there is a Necessary-existence being among all of the beings. This statement does not depend on proving of any point of philoSophical issues, such as the basic existence, unity of existence, etc.

The second statement:

Indeed we realize the external existence, and evidently the existence: either necessary or possible, and in case of being a possible-existence, then it needs another existence, and so on. And the non- existence: is a combination of annihilation and essence, and evidently the annihilation is null and void, and the essence is something nominal and imaginary and neither it has any authenticity nor occupies any space, so it is proved that the existence is not needy of non-existence. Obviously the Necessary-Existence is from the existence itself and all of the possible existences are depend on it. The author says in Al-Asfar: �This argument is the best and strongest of any other argument, because actually there is no middle term in the argument except it, so the procedure of achieving the aim is same as the aim, and it is as of truth full people. I say: �The author�s statement (that there is no middle term in the argument except it), means is the possible beings of non necessary-existence, that it was as of proving the necessary-existence by it, which is called posteriori demonstration, and it pertains to discover the cause through the caused. His next statement (the procedure of achieving the aim is same as the aim), means is that this argument becomes true through putting the man�s natural perceptive faculties with one another, then one can know the existence of necessary loving without needing to know anything other than Him. The second theological argument: The argument of possibility and necessity The statement: Indeed there is a being, so if the existence was necessary to its essence, so that is which we required, but if it was possible then necessarily it needs to a creator, then if the creator is the Necessary-existent, so that is which we required, but if it is a possible existent, then it needs to another creator, so if it was the first creator then it is a circle which is necessarily void, and if it was an infinite series, then it is also void, because when the whole series are possible existence then the serial itself necessary becomes a possible-existence too� and its existence through itself is impossible without an external creator, therefore it is necessary to be there a creator out of it, so this external creator necessarily will be a self-existence being, and that is what is required.

The third theological argument:

The argument of contingency The statement: (It is the argument of theologians.) Certainly the world is an originated substance and obviously it should have an originator, so if it is created by itself then it becomes a circular or an infinite series, and if it is eternal, then it is which we required, because the eternal should have a necessary-existence. But surely the world is an originated substance, because the substance is indivisible from the originations, so it is an originated world. Verily the substance is indivisible from the originations, because it is either in motion and every substance should occupy a space necessarily, and in such case: it is either in motion or emotion, so both of them are origination. Verily the motion: is being a substance in another place after being in its first place. So whatever is indivisible from origination, it is an originated, because if it was not an originated then it will be an eternal, and in a such case: either there will be something of that originated substance together with the eternal, or will not together, in the first case necessarily the both originated and eternal should be in one thing which is impossible to be happened in the second case necessarily the substance should be divided from the both motion or emotion together, and verily it is also impossible. The origination of the natural world according to the theories of physics

Surely �La Vauzies� one of the physic scientist in the middle ages claimed that the substance neither increases nor decreases, and it has a fix and unchangeable quantity. His theory was accepted by the physical scientists for a long times, but in the recent century the physic science made it invalid by introducing �Thermodynamics� Law� which means is the law of transformation of substance into energy and vice-versa that substance transforms gradually into energy until the substance disappear completely. According to the Einstein formula it has been proved that: Energy=Mass*(Light velocity) 2 (and the light velocity is equal to 300000km. P/S) as well as the Mass=Energy� (Light velocity) 2. Thus it has been proved that the nature of the world is: A power that appears into various forms, like the powers of: sonic, magnetic, electric, chemical, mechanic, etc. Of course, this theory has been proved by practical experiments, because the physical scientists become able in their technical laboratories to transform the substance into power and vice-versa. The thermodynamics law is driven from the rule of anthrop, and the rule of anthrop says: �The elements gradually become fading away.�

This law proved that the substantial beings reach to a limit then annihilate completely and there is an end to its existence as well as this law proves that their existence have an end, furthermore the physical scientists become able through this method to estimate the age of natural world since beginning its origination and creation, and finally it proves it is an originated world. The fourth theological argument: The motion argument The author says in Al-Asfar: �This argument-the motion law is stated by the prophet Ibrahim (A.S.). Then he refers to what Allah said: [And thus did we show Ibrahim the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and that he might be of those who are sure, night overshadowed him, he saw a star; said he: This is my Lord, so when it set he said :I do not love the setting things, then when he saw the moon rising he said: This is my Lord, so when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me I should certainly be of the erring people, then when he saw the sun rising he said: O my Lord! He is the greatest? So when it set, he said: O my people! Surely I am clear of what you set up (with Allah) surely I have turned myself, being upright, wHoly to Him who has originated the heavens and the earth, and I am not of the polytheists.][5] I say: �The motion argument depends on three propositions: 1-The world including all its beings are dynamics. 2-The motion is combined of existence and non-existence. 3- Obviously a thing can�t come into existence without cause after its disappearance.

The first proposition:

It pertains to the quality of motion, and its statement: A thing during a motion changes its place in every moment, means neither stays on its previous point nor on its next coming point, because if it was remain on a certain point during two following moments then the motion will change into tranquility.

The second proposition:

It is the motion of natural world, which has different forms and a scientific law has proved each one of them. Movement of the world according to astronomy The earth at the first glance looks motionless, but in the recent centuries it has been proved obviously that it moves positional around its axis exteding between its two poles day and night, furthermore it moves transitionally around the sun annually; what has been felt at the first glance of the sun movement around the earth is a lapse of sense. Then astronomy has proved the movement of the sun accompanied by all the planets revolving around it, thus this solar system moves at a velocity of 250 kmps and with the same speed it passes the extensional destination without circulation in it except once in every two hundred million years.[6] Some scientists have discovered the movement of the sun towards the star (Nojai) at the speed of 20 kmps. [7]

The Holy Qur'an has described the movement of sun as the extensional movement by what the Almighty God said: [And the sun runs on to a term appointed for it that is the ordinance or the Mighty the Knowing.][8] So the words of (run on to) describe the extensional movement, if He had meant the circulation of the sun in everyday and night around the earth He would have said: �And the sun circles around�, this verse is one of the miracles of the Holy Qur'an, for it contradicts the theories of the ancient astronomists who used to believe that the sun circles around the earth, it also contradicts the theories of the late asrtonomists who used to believe that the earth circles around it; this verse complies with what has been discovered sand proved by accurate technical devices 13 cenfury after its revelation.

The movement of atoms of the world according to physics Physics discloses that the number of the smallest portion of an ordinary substance (which is called a molecule) is more than three millions in per m/m. Each molecule consists of small parts that are called (atoms) (which means in Latin an indivisible part), but the physics has succeeded to divide and recognize its parts; and also has discovered that each atom consists of so many parts which fall into three categories:

The first is called (electron) which is so minute that the weight of a hydrogen atom which is the smallest kind of atom equals to 2000 electrons these much parts of an atom circle speedily and continuously around its centre. Thus it has been proved that the various parts of the world are always are moving. The substantial movement materials according to philoSophy We shall discuss and prove the substantial movement of materials during the, prove of none-materiality of Necessary Existence. According to decisive proof all of the materials are moving always, at every instance they are alternating from being into nothingness, thus it was proves that the world continuously shifts from being to nothingness, always needy to be in existence of the world Maker (Exalted be His Glory).

The fifth theological argument:

Oneself as a proof The Almighty God said: [We shall show them our signs in the horizons and in themselves, till it is clear to them that it is the truth.][9] Ameerul Muamineen (A.S) said: �He who knows his God.�[10]

Oneself as a proof:

Knowing The Almighty God by means of knowing oneself, thus we recognize Allah�s existence, abstraction, knowledge, potency and His other qualities. Man himself is a great library that, contains all books of monotheism, starting from the easiest right to the most difficult one; from the most superior to the most inferior; it contains the easy books that the most naive people can study them, in addition to other books that the are above the comprehension of the greatest scientists and the most intelligent people. Allah has given to every man (from the lowest to the highest what he requires from the book of monotheism, each assorting to his knowledge and comprehension, with no need to acquire it from the outside, hence he has no excuse to give up it�s study, and knowing Allah by means of knowing himself. Man�s existence (Soul and body) embraces innumerable secrets, as it has been quoted from Ameerul Muamineen peace be upon him that said: Do you think you are a small planet? In you the world as a whole has been embraced, you are the clear book, and by its letters the hidden meanings appear[11].

It has been proved in anatomy (Physiology) that the body of every man contains fifty thousand bilback cells, and this quantity of cells are ten thousands times more then the number of the whole earth inhabitants, every cell is an animal that has its own life.[12] Man�s soul is the treasury of secrets, all scientists in their different scientific fields admitted their incompetence to realize the essence of the soul and its whereAbouts of knowledge, imagination, memorization, meditation, will, love, hate, sorrow, happiness, sleep, awakens, attentiveness, etc, for neither the soul nor those conditions are tangible. As Allah the Almighty said: [And they ask you about the soul-say: the soul is one of the commands of my Lord, and you are not given aught of know ledge but a little.][13] Briefly, the world-as well as man-is a formative book to know The Almighty God; reading of this book is interesting and easy, but difficult; interesting and easy because, every one can read it, even the naive people; and difficult because its all secrets are difficult to understand, and the science iduring the past centuries could only attain a small part of them, it is similar to Allah�s legislative book which can be easily comprehended on one hand, as The Almighty God said; [And certainly we have made the Qur'an easy for remembrance, but is there anyone who will mind.][14] On the other hand it is difficult to be understood but whoever is entitled, as Allah said: [But none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: We believe in it, it is all from our lord.][15]

One of the evidences of Almighty God in a man is: His new and changeable conditions. Al Kulaini has quoted a Tradition in Usool Al Kafi relates from Abi Al Aujaa from Abi Abdullah peace be upon him that told him in a Tradition: �Woe is thee! How come thou do not see the One who hath shown thee his potency in thyself; thy being when thou had not been, thy growth after being infant, thy strength after being weakest, thy weakness after being strong, thy sickness after being healthy, thy health after being ills, thy calmness after thy wrath, thy wrath after thy calmness, thy sadness after thy happiness, and thy happiness after being sad, thy love after thy abhorrence, thy abhorrence after thy love, thy determination after being patient, thy patience after thy determination, thy last after thy dislike, thy dislike after thy lust, thy desire after being frightened, thy fear after thy desire, thy hope after despair, thy despair after hope, thy remembrance of what though had forgotten, thy forget ness of what thou knows for certain� He went on mentioning Allah�s potentialities which are put in me till1 started to suspect that something will happen between me and him".[16]

The sixth theological argument:

The argument of system and order This proof is obtained from watching the nature; it is an easy-and difficult proof. Its minor premise the easy side of it lies in observing nature for it is attainable to every human being, matures system too is tangible and easily recognizable even to the weakest observer. The difficulty of this proof lies in the fact that all physical sciences actually survey the system of existents in nature; every existent represents a feature of physics, every detail and every problem reveals a law of nature, all natures existents are made of various formulas of creation, innumerable formulas some of which are apparent to man, others are concealed of which scientific researches have explored but a little, human inventions are nothing but exploring and making use of the qualities that characterize things and beings of nature when dismantled, installed or united together according to the laws of creation which control them. The law means is a system, every law has its special system which dictates its proofs; the more physics of nature expand in creasing mans acquaintance with the laws of nature; the wider way to know The Almighty God becomes; never the less, the mundane inferior aims might mislead the people, making their hearts blind-for surely it is not the eyes that are blind, but blind are the hearts which are in the breasts. The general side of this proof is easy too; we shall out line it in a simplified style comprehensible for everyone, there after we shall state its scientific and mathematical theorization.

Some simple examples:

If a line of beads is cut, can the beads of the rosary them selves regain their original serial shape and position? Can a room or a building well designed and equipped be accidentally made of bricks and other materials? Can a number of colors accidentally stand next to each other to draw a beautiful landscape? Can a nice carpet be accidentally made of the colored wool threads?! Can the human body with this wonderful well-organized minute structure be accidentally found? These were simple examples to show the proof of system. The Holy Qur'an describes the whole world as being Divine signs; as a mother of fact the universe is a great book whose subject knows Allah, and every law that controls the existence of the creatures is one of the signs of this book. The Qur'an in 40 verses describes the creatures of the world by the word (sign), as these verses: [And one of his signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your tongues and color.] [17] And [Do they not see the birds, constrained in the middle of the sky? None with holds them but Allah; most surely there are signs in this for a people who believe.][18]

There are many verses, which certify that the creatures of the world are ways to know Allah; other verses indicate that reading the book of the universe in creases the ability to know Allah. All world creatures have some accurate system, thus the duration of the for earth circle around itself never increases or decreases even once minute: also the time of sunrise and sunset at every day of the year is identical to the same timing on the same day every year, for the earth circle around the sun all along the days of the year is accurate and highly organized. In reading the book of the world we should start with ourselves for our existence, as a whole is an organized system. The human body is composed of cells, each of which is a living independent animal that has its own procreation and its own movement, its own nutrition its own movement, its own feelings and its own functioning, every single cell maintains a special function. Cell number in every human body is close to (50000) bilbacks of cells[19], which is ten thousand times of earth population. Every group of similar cells added to some unliving material composes a tissue; these cells have their special own function, and every organ of body is made of a number of tissues, different organs compose the body system, like the digestive system which dismantles food distributing it to the rest of the organs casting out the excretions. The respiratory system is another wonderful device, by means of which the lungs take the Oxygen from the air pumping it via the blood through the veins and arteries, thus the blood carries the Oxygen to all organs; the body�s need to oxygen is apparent. Reproductive system is incredible too; every part of this system has its special cells which functions in a special way. Scientist�s studies and researches to know the wonders of the cell continue. The things we have mentioned were mere examples; there are countless wonders in all parts and fields of creation, respectively in their order and system, which represent various ways to know Allah.

Allah the Inventor has given man the power of thinking, meditation and restoration of knowledge to know his God betterly, viz by means of realizing the wonders of creation [And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.][20] Serve Me means is to know Me. Sciences are not mans invention, rather man is like a hen that picks sciences from with in the layers of creatures- even inventions are subject to this fact; they are only made to know beings and creatures and understand their qualities. Proving the system (by mathematic calculations) By means of mathematics we can prove the existence of the universe creator, thus meditating upon the world creatures system of existence through `studying the probabilities of composing a certain building at random. Calculating the probabilities of composing a certain build in an arbitrary way If a brick is put on the ground, and another brick fell on it accidentally; the probability that the second brick will fall on one of its two wide faces is ; the probability of falling over the other brick in a vertical position is The probability of falling in a position completely parallel to the first brick with no digression to the left or right � in case we calculated the degree of digression to be 45 degrees � will be If we suppose the width of the brick 10cm, the probability of falling on its wide side on top of the other bricks wide side is exactly If we suppose the length of the brick 20cm, the probability of falling on its long side on the other bricks long side is exactly. As a result of this, the probability that the second brick may exactly fall on the first brick equals:

= The probability of three bricks falling in this way equals:

The probability of four bricks falling in this way equals: 1 x 1 x 1 = 1 _ 540000 540000 540000 157464000000000 This means that one probability is against of more than 150 thousand bilbacks probabilities. Consequently, the number of probabilities that governs the fall of 26 bricks exactly fit on each other equals a number of thirty two figures in addition to fifty seven zeros; the probability is only one against all these chances. If we want to comprehend the enormity of this incredible number, we should make a supposition; suppose we divide all the dirt of the earth � even the dirt of the sea bottoms down to the depth of thirty thousand meter into small atoms[21] in a way that each group of one million atoms falls in a single (m/m) 2; thereafter we suppose that the size of every single atom equals the size of earth; dividing there after each atom into a number equal to the number of all the atoms of earth, the equation will be: ________1_______ 10 Billions X 10 Billions Hence we can image the amount of probabilities in an arbitrary composition of a 20000 bricks building!! Following the same method of presumption how is the macrocosm to be constructed if every single man of it is composed of (50 thousand bilback cells)? Is it possible that this wonderfully organized macrocosm to be constructed accidentally any capable knowledge able Maker?! The seventh theological argument: The proof of wisdom The difference between the proof of the system and the proof of wisdom is: Discussing the proof of system is part of the law of creation that applies to the whole world. System or order means: Law. The proof of wisdom is other than the proof of system � Wisdom means: Doing something for a certain aim, and the necessity of using the proper thing at the right place to attain the desired aim, the man who does this work at the right time and place, never doing anything at random is called (wise).

 

The proof of wisdom does note prove the existence of a maker exclusively, it rather proves his knowledge and wise arrangement. Example: When we notice that a certain building possesses the qualities of a perfectly designed structure we com to conclude that its architect cleverly inteds to facilitate the building for peoples living affirming wisdom as a proof only requires a quick look from man to how his Godly is made and constructed (exactly as we employed to affirm the proof of system): In (Awali Al Laali) it has been narrated: �Mujashia asked the prophet peace be upon him and his descendants: What is as to know righteousness (Allah)? He peace be upon him and his descendants answered: �Know himself.� Yes; knowing oneself is the best way to know Allah; a way that is handy to everybody, everyone with a little meditation can know The Almighty God, he can contemplate his body, the minute a body is born it finds ready accommodations that answer his needs, its mothers breast ripe and full of milk situated at her loving teder lap, the nipple that takes place between the baby�s teder lips, with a little pressure the milk starts flowing in its little month. We know for sure, if man does not eat or drink anything for afew days he dies, consequently the merciful Creator has prepared a suitable nutrition for the new borne which cannot eat other food. By the sublime�s potency milk is made in the mother's breast when she becomes pregnant. Nutrition experts confirm that mother�s milk is a full diet suitable for the growth of the body and easy to be digested too. Contemplate the Divine wisdom, the nipple has been softly made so it easily Gets into the baby�s mouth; some minute holes have been made into the nipple so that by a small pressure from the baby�s mouth the milk flows in; if there has been no hole the milk will not stream out; and if the holes were not so minute, milk will ooze without pressure, thus if will be wasted. Who taught the dumb baby to take the nipple in its mouth and suck its milk? Ameerul Muamineen (A.S) in (Nahjul Balaghah) with reference to this wisdom of the universe Creator said: �Who taught you to take your food from your mother�s breast?�[22] As long as a baby cannot nurture itself except by milk, his mouth thus has no teeth; but when it grows up and becomes able to nurture it by various nourishments, its mouth will grow teeth into tow opposite positions in the upper and lower jaw so as to facilitate chewing food. The upper jaw is connected the strongest bone in the body, i.e. the skull, it is constant while the lower jaw moves inflecting pressure on the upper jaw so food is grind between them. The front teeth (i.e. the incisor teeth) are made sharp so as to cut the morsel, while back teeth (molar teeth) are wide faced and unleveled so as to crash and grind food making it easy to be swallowed and digested. The tongue controls the morsel in the mouth placing it right under the teeth, when the morsel is grind and becomes ready for digestion the tongue collects it and sends it through the throat down to the bowels. Send it through the down to the bowels.

 

If man starves for 24 hours all of his body organs will feel weak, the minuteman eats he will feel strong. What an accuracy of creation!? A single morsel affects all the body. Can anybody master these minute accurate operations so that the body can make use of the essence of food casting a way excretion off the body? NO� none can do this, except the wisdom of the wise Exalted and sublime. If man does not feel hungry how dangerous it will be for him. Hence, man can contemplate and meditate over the making of his body thus knowing his Creator. Knowing Allah through the study of scientific discoveries about the structure of man's body Contemplating and studying the scientific discoveries a bout the making of mans body bring us closer to know the wisdom of creation and the amazing small details of man�s body. Hereunder we demonstrate an example briefly: some of Allah�s signs in nutrition or digestive system [He who created me, then He has shown me the way and He who gives me to eat and gives me to drink.][23] One of the clearest Divine signs in man and also in all other animals is: system of taking and Crushing food in the mouth and passing through it into body of man and animals after a series of amazing stages, the Divine sustenance reaches to all of the cells of human and animal body. A scientist says[24]: Uptill now, thousands of books have been written about digestion and as the digestive system operates, but every year new discoveries make this subject more modern and new then ever. If we make a comparison between the digestive system and a chemistry lab (making another comparison between the foodstuff and basic elements of that lab); we shall be amazed on the perfect function of this system that can grind and digest every edable thing in the world. The stomach selects the proper useful food mixing it with the chemical it secretes casting off the extra materials, separating the remains into different kinds of stuff that are used to build, meat, bone, skin, hair, blood and arteries, etc. by means of which billions of body cells are fed. Various stages of digestive system: We shall make a study of the various parts of digestive system:

Digestion in the mouth: The front teeth are made to mince food, the rear teeth are made to grind it, the muscular strength required for this operation is so great; the incisor teeth produce a power that equals 34 Kgms, and the molar teeth produce a power that equals 42 to100 Kgms. Saliva: The mouth by means of saliva changes the chemical structure of food; it is the first liquid that operates on food, for it contains (pitaline) which disintegrates starch making it sugar. Saliva is secreted from three couples of salivary glands: 1- Glands on both sides of the month. 2- Glands beneath the tongue. 3- Gland; under the lower jaw. Secretion of saliva is continuous even in normal conditions, secretion increases during chewing and swallowing, it makes the tongue and cheeks moist and clean, in addition to that it prevents the teeth from injuring the mouth while speaking. Swallowing as an operation passes through three stays: The first stage: Gathering chewed food above the tongue, which suddenly goes up to throw the morsel into the throat. The second stage: The morsel passes through the throat; the minute food reaches the throat, the nasal cavity gets blocked by the epiglottis situated at the end of the palate, then the shrinkage of the muscles around the larynx makes the area around the vocal cords tight preventing the food from getting into the lungs, the muscles that make the throat tight take the morsel and send it to the gullet. The third stage: Foodstuff passes through the gullet. The upper muscles of the gullet are ring shaped, while the lower muscles of the gullet are straight shaped, the gullet by means of these two sets of muscles moves like a wave, every wave lasts 5-6 seconds, gravity power is anotheshing food from the gullet into the stomach. The gullet-similar to other parts of the digestive system-is covered with mucous membrane, this mucous prevents the solid parts of food in the morsel from scratching the membrane.[25] The stomach: The stomach is that strange mysterious organ, it is the parking station in the digestive system at which the nourishment stuff is analyzed, grind and re-composed. When the food comes into the stomach, its wall shrinks warmiy. The thick wall of the stomach is basically made of muscular layers that shrink in warm like powerful waves, those shrinks result in blocking the front and rear part of the stomach keeping the food inside this sack for one to tow hours.[26] The internal surface of the stomach is covered by a mucous membrane, which contains about 35 million minute glands; these glands secrete the chemical liquid of the stomach.[27] This chemical liquid of the stomach is a strong acid it is so strong that if it touches the skin of the hand It will make it swell; furthermore the stomach contains some preserving substance that protects the stomach wall from being scratched by any solid body. The stomach wall contains various glands, each of which secrets a special substance that operates on a single kind of food, one of these secretions for instance affects protein. Some of them affect fat and oil disintegrating them, others affect yogurt dissolving it, others more affect the vitamins, excluding special kinds of them and storing them into the liver.[28] When there is food in the stomach its front and rear part get closed until the food inside it turns into a liquid like material, thus digestion gradually becomes less, secreting acids becomes less; thereafter food stuff turns into liquid, this liquid is called �stomach chemo�s� and then it moves from the stomach into the bowels. The stomach becomes contraction in every 3 or 4 hours, and these automatic contractions let us feel hungry.

 

The liver: Liver is the most important chemical factory in the body, every substance that enters the body and can not be disintegrated got sent to the liver to prevent poisoning, there the liver adds to it some chemicals which dissolve it so it can pass out by urination. Today, more than 500 operations and functions of the liver have been counted. Worthwhile to say that those operations and functions have not get been the thoroughly surveyed exactly. The liver has thousands of operations and protective activities, it admixes harmful materials whit other substances to produce useful materials, storing others to cast away by time in small quantities. Other useful functions of the liver: 1- On climbing a staircase your muscles will require fuel so as to produce the energy needed for the effort, the liver here starts to operate and exchange the glycogen with the glucose-the muscles diet-and at last infuse it into the blood. 2- In every second, the human body must get rid of 10 million useless red globules, the liver in a continue effort starts to rebuild and repair these globules re-employing them to produce new blood cells. 3- If your finger got wounded, the liver will produce some protein substance that makes the blood coagulate around that injury. Imaging that there has been no liver, certainly your life will be in continuous danger. The Bowels: Food reaches to the bowels in the form of a mixture, a liquid resulting from the chemical and physical operations that took place in the stomach. The inner surface of the bowels is covered with some small heights, which help widen that surface to facilitate food absorption; its continuous movement too speeds digestion by means of influencing the neighboring liquids. At the peak of every height there are some cells that secrete the stomach acid, which adds the last touches to digestion. This ready substance for digestion passes through the bowels wall. The bowels are situated in a two layer sack called (peritoneum), has it not been situated between this moist sack, the bowels would not have been able to move in the abdomen.[29] Some of Allah�s signs in the respiratory system: The respiratory system operates to transfer fresh air to the lungs (to transfer Oxygen to the blood and to exhale the air whose air is consumed, receiving fresh air is called (inhalation), casting out the consumed air is called (exhalation). Shape and construction of the lung: The lung is a sponge like organ that possesses minute invisible slots (estimated 600 million slots in number); if these slots are arranged in a raw they will cover an area of 200 meter2, i.e. 25 times more than the man�s skin surface.[30] Each one of these respiratory slots is covered with a net of blood capillary tubes similar to a spider web. This net is so minute, that the only one red globule passes through it at a time, Through the teder wall of this minute structure the consumed blood is cast out and the blood full of Oxygen is absorb ding, note ably the color of the consumed blood is bluish black, while its color on the other side of the wall is bright red, through few minutes all the blood i.e. the body stock of blood � should pass through this minute net.[31] This spongy organ opens and closes about (28000) times in every 24 hours refining about 4000 tons of blood annually.[32] Some of Allah�s signs in Blood: Blood as a means to transfer the nourishment to all parts of the body. Blood transfers Oxygen to the body cells so that the far situated parts do not remain without Oxygen; (for blood in its normal condition can not get through the cells) thus it must turn from a stagnant liquid into a streaming one (by means of the heart which functions as a pump) that continuously carries around Oxygen. The blood carries the oxygen from the lungs to the tissues; in its trip back to the lungs it carries the consumed air so as to be exhaled out by the lungs. Furthermore, the blood distributes nourishment substances from the bowels to different parts of the body; it also carries the extra wastes to the kidneys to be cast out. The blood as well distributes the energy produced by the muscles to all parts of the body, thus assisting to organize the body temperature. Blood too transfers the internal glands excretions to the tissues that need them. Blood plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of water and salts in the body; it also plays an important role in protecting the body from diseases and harmful bacteria that attack it.

 

Elements that distribute the sustenance to the body: Bilbacks of living creatures (called red corpuscles) swim into the blood of man these creatures are responsible for transferring and distributing the vital substances, water, nourishment, air, among 50 thousands bilback cells, in addition to its function of carrying the wastes to the lungs and kiddies to be cast out.[33] Every second almost three million red corpuscles die, exactly similar 3 million fresh red corpuscles are made to replace them. Within three months all the red corpuscles are replacedn. Defensive elements of body: In addition to the red corpuscles, human�s blood contains other living creatures called (white corpuscles) which are responsible for defending the body. White corpuscles number between 5-9 thousands corpuscles in per mm cubic[34], generally its quantity reach to 75 billion corpuscles in man�s blood.[35] White corpuscles due to its offensive function to protect the body is able to digest bacteria and other external atoms, a mere attack carried out by the microbes on any part of the body will provoke the white corpuscles to retaliate moving through the blood capillaries to reach the spot at which the microbe gets through to the body, they can also get out of the blood capillary tubes and get in side the tissues taking the microbes with them so as to exterminate them. The amount of blood and the quantity of the materials in side it are fixed, and it is because of the operations of the kidney, which refines the blood expelling the extra wastes. In every second, about 1200 cm cubic of blood runs through the kidney and in spite of its light weight (About 500grms), it can carry an amount of blood that only 5 kgms, of muscles can bear to carry. Man�s Kidney has a similar color to his liver, its long is about 10-12.5 cm long and about 5-735 cm, thick is about 2.5-5 cm, its weight is about 250 grams, and it has the shape of a bean. The blood in the kidney is situated close to a big filter, after filtration through this filter some of the blood turns into urine and becomes out of body, the remaining blood absorbs again in the body. The kidney is a filter composed of minute tubes that counts about one million to one million and a half tubes in a single kidney, The blood runs through these tubes then gets filtered, generally about 120 cm cubic of a liquid per minute runs through a kidney, i.e. (4 liters per day), but 99% of this amount of blood is re-absorbed by the tubes to go back to the blood main stream.[36] Surveying the discoveries of physics science enables us to know the endless secrets of nature; so as much as we meditate about them we can understand better the system of creation of the nature. Some of Allah�s signs in the heart: The pumping system of blood to the various parts of the body. We came to know that blood is the media that carries oxygen and nourishment to all the body. Consequently, blood circulation into blood vessels and corpuscles requires a device that operates as a pump in man and other animal�s bodies; the heart is the instrument that achieves this function. Man�s heart � or any other animal heart for this purpose �operates from the beginning of the creature�s life to the end without any rest. SO� if the average age of man is 50 years, his heart will beat about 2 bilback times, pumping about 300 thousand tons, which is one of the mysteries of creation and a secret of the universe.

The effort the heart exerts at every minute equals the effort exerted to lift a weight of 35 Kgms. on a 30 Cms. from the surface of the ground. Such an amount of effort equals two times the energy produced by the strong muscles of the arm or the leg (taking into consideration that both arms and legs soon get tired); while the heart achieves this non-stop and limitless effort without getting tired ever. The strange and great potency of the heart muscles, which enable it to achieve the most difficult work without feeling any kind of tire, has attracted the scientist's attention to this sensitive organ.[37] The heart�s speed is incredible and peerless, for by means of this super speed, the blood sets forth to start its circulation covering in an hour a distance equal to the distance between Tehran and New York, i.e. 7500kms. According to expert�s calculations, the amount of blood pumped by the heart annually is almost 2600000 liter�s which requires at least 81 trucks to transport.[38] Heartbeat is at an opposite proportion with the animal body�s size, heartbeat of the elephant for example reaches (20) beat per minute, the rabbit heart beats 150 times per minute; the mouse heart beats 700 times per minute, thus goes the proportion between the animal size and the rate of its breath. There is a direct proportion between the animal size and its age, the smaller it is the less age it will have. SO� if we want to count the age, we must count the heart, beats (instead of the years), and the result will be fixed. Consequently, we can compare a mosquito heart, which beats at the rate of 1000 beat per minute, to an elephant heart, which beats at the rate of 20 beats per minute the elephant heart beats for seven weeks. In fact we can say that the most mammals' age about one billion times proportionate to their heart�s beat.[39] Being contains about 50 trilback cells, while the body of a full grown up elephant contains 6500 cotilback cells, the body of a small mosquito contains no more than 7 bilback cells[40]. The structure of Heart: The heart consists of four cavities (or holes), two of which receive the blood (called auricles), and the other two pump the blood (called ventricles). The right auricle takes blood from the body, the left one takes blood from the lungs; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs while the left ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. The function of the heart is to pump blood by means of its systematic shrinkage and relaxation, when it relaxes the blood streams into its cavities then into the organs of the body.[41] Some of Allah�s signs in the five senses:

Eyesight: Eye vision is an open window that enables man to see the world, it enables man to see the close and far sights on and on to the far most the eyesight exteds. Other senses of man only realizes touchable things, these senses maintain a realization limited to the size of the body and its touchable surface, or to the other bodies surrounding it. The eye has been situated in the head, at the top of the upper part of the body, so it can apprehend more things and see more wide views. The eye is the most valuable external organ man possesses, hence it was situated in the skull bone right into the socket of it so as to protect it from unexpected hits, rather when a head receive a strong hit the eye remains safe, for it is situated into a layer of fat. The eyeball is in s continues state of movement which is achieved by means of six muscles, in different directions. The nerves carry the orders from the brain and back to it. The muscles of the eyes are in complete accurate coherence, which makes their sight simultaneously fall on a very small spot. They never maintain a separate vision at the same time. The eye is the only organ, which transpires what is behind it like a piece of crystal, such an, ability gives it extra importance. Mans eye is made of seven curtains, one of which is the (retina) which reflects the image and shadow of things. The (retina) consists of six thousands conic shaped small stones; the surface is covered with 34 thousands cylinder shaped small stones. The peerless softness of this retina, its non-stop nutrition and its other secrets increase the greatness of its structure and its wonderful creation. The waves of the red color spectrum that enters the eye at every second count 458 bilback waves; the violet color waves count 1727 bilback. The eye maintains one million independent telephonic lines in the sight nerve that reaches to brain.[42] Harmony between the sophisticated systems of eye: All components that make the eye vision possible, including the eyeball, the seven curtains, the cones, sight nerves and movement muscles should be in good and safe shape, if any harm inflicts any of them, the eye can not see anymore. Is it possible then to imaging that these factors in such an accurate order come into existence at random? Is it possible that there is no maker who coordinates its functions so that eyesight is properly achieved?

Hearing: The eardrum completely blocks the bearing cavity, the sonic waves that reach it change into frequencies that penetrate to the brain, and these frequencies are called sounds. The middle ear, which starts exactly after the ear drum contains three soft minute chain like arranged bones they transfer these frequencies to the oval slot situated between the middle ear and the cavity of the internal ear. The number of the nervous units situated at slot opening of the spiral tubes inside the internal ear is estimated to be (6000) nervous units, God knows how many (nor owns) they contain; but any normal ordinary perSon can distinguish 34000 kinds of sounds, distinguishing each of which requires its own special nerve.[43]

Taste: The number of minute compartments that cover the tongue surface are estimated to be (3000), each of which is connected to a bunch of nerves leading to the brain. Various food atoms get into these compartments as a wire gets into electric socket, the electric current (food taste) runs carrying the instigation to the brain, thereafter the brain can distinguish the taste of the eaten food. The sense of the taste is situated in the tongue so that man can feel the taste of every food and drink enjoying the tasty ones, and avoiding the bad ones.

Smell: Smelling system in its structure and way of functioning is similar to the taste sense system in the tongue; it is composed of minute parts that cover the internal surface of the nose. The number of smelling cells is estimated to be 2-4 million cells[44], some chemistry scientists have discovered about 30000 kinds of smell. Smelling sense is so accurate that if a smell is spread in the air at the rate of, the nose can distinguish it.[45] Touching: Man�s skin is the media of touching, it contains a net of nerves that receive instigations from the skin surface and send them to the brain, some of them sense the pressure, others sense pain, others more sense heat; another set of nerves transfer the order of the brainto the skin. Skin structure: The skin has the most complicated scientific and technical structure known till now[46], and due to the continuous movement of the body�s living tissues, the cells should always maintain a certain amount of humidity, and as long as the body maintains contact with the air, the skin will be the protecting cover that prevents the body�s humidity from vaporization.[47] Nobody, untill now could succeed to design a waterproof skin similar to mans skin. The skin of the human body contains thousands of holes, but it has been composed in a way that if man spends hundreds of hours in the water, water will never get through it into the body.[48] Preparatory Glands: Preparatory glands cover the whole surface of the skin (except the lips). They count about three millions. In the palms of the hands and feet these glands come close to each other. Each gland in fact is a curved thin tube covered with curved capillary tubes.[49] The preparatory system operates to maintain the body�s temperature at 37-38 0c.[50] Some of Allah�s signs in the nervous system or the great institute of Body�s communications: Million of orders and instigations day and might pass through different nerves from various parts of the body up to the grain and vice-versa, the importance of man�s communication system is incomparable to the normal telephone, radio and television system. The nervous net consists of every sensitive device of transmission and reception in addition to communication lines exteded along the body, it is an over sophisticated exchange that masters the signs transmitted and received punctually in less than a second (usually). The number of those connecting lines is limitless; a single visual nerve for example maintains one million telephone lines.[51] The nervous system consists of two apparatus: 1. Involuntary Nervous system. 2. Voldntary Nervous system. The involuntary system controls the involuntary activities of the body, like the heart beat, digestion, and respiration act. The voluntary nervous system establishes the connection between the body and the external world consequently, what ever man feels by means of the five senses is sent by this net of nervous to the brain; for each of the senses there some especial nervous that transfer the sensations to the brain. The involuntary nervous system contains two groups of nervous: 1. Sympathetic set of nervous. 2. The parasympathetic set of nervous. Each set function in its own way instigating the sympathetic nervous of the heart; for instance it increases the heartbeat, while instigating the set of the parasympathetic nervous of the heart decreases its beat.[52] Some of Allah�s signs in the brain, the Controlling and guiding center of body: 1. Brain power: The scientists count the human�s brain as the most wonderful machine. If we inted to match the activities of the man s brainto some kind of a computer we shall need an apparatus whose size matches the size of the Empire state building (the biggest sky scrapper all over the world). But the amount of electricity consumed by such machine is: Equal to half of New York electricity consumption; at the same time the bulbs (Anodes and Cathodes) of that device will require the water falls of Niagara to cool them. The size of the guidebook to such great apparatus will be 2000 times the size of the normal telephone guidebook.[53] 2. Capacity to store data: According to registered statistic, every normal individual can store ten million nation vises: if we inted to publish these nation in medium size book, they will make a bookshelf that contains million of books.[54] The cortex of the human brain does not exceed a few millimeters of thickness; every atom of it stores bilbacks of problems and secrets. Notice that when we want to select a book from a big library we make use of index which requires some times; another while of time should be dedicated to f fetch out the piece of information needed; opposite to this, mans brain and memory responds instantly to his need. Another incredible activity of the brain it is ability to distinguish instantly a sound or shapes and sounds. Man�s memory is the greatest secret of science, the brain stores everything as it is, we might of course imagine that we have forgotten some details after a few seconds, but the fact is: we remember them again under other conditions. It had been established that some people apparently forget the memories of their childhood, but they soon will remember them. Some of Allah�s signs in the Motion: Muscles produce all body movement, a muscle normally function bye mean of its ability to shrink and relax, and thus the space between the two joints which connect the muscle might be controlled. Muscle shrinkage is the one of the strangest things in life; for suddenly the soft substance while is similar to jelly turns solid assuming another shape, thus it becomes able to carry things thousand times heavier than its weight, furthermore it can repeat this task hundreds of times at a single minute. The muscle consist of thin lines visible to the human eye, if we put one of these lines under the microscope speculating it carefully we shall find some horizontal lines that reveals the nature of the muscle fabric. The human body contains 650 muscles that maintain compound liaisons between each other. Muscles are classified into two sets: Normally arranged into dual pairs, each of which achieves an opposite function to the other; if one of them. For instance: If an organ begins to bend, its peer will start to make it straighten. Some of Allah�s signs in the reproductive system: The reproductive system is one of man�s wonderful organs, which narrates to us the wisdom of the Exalted Creator. This accuracy in the male or female reproductive system makes us astonished in front of the great Creator, how each of them complements the other; how do they jointogether into one factory to produce something new, each achieves his part of work, any activity on one side will be introductory to the activity of the other, which will complement the action of the first side. These astonishing stages of both sides really acquaint us with the wisdom of the great universal Creator. Some of Allah�s signs in the faces of human beings:

The diversity of people�s faces: [He it is who shapes you in the wombs as he likes; there is no God but he, the Mighty, the wise.][55] What a great wisdom in shaping human faces so that each can easily be distinguished? Al though the atoms that formulate the body of bilbacks of people are identical, yet every individual has his own portrait which distinguishes him from bilbacks of people. Some of Allah�s signs in the systems of other animals: Up to this stage we have been dealing with the human body, notably all kinds of animals, like birds, species, insects and other creatures of sea and land have their special laws as the laws of human body; each of them is a special way to know Allah. The eighth theological argument: Beauty as a proof: The beauty and grace, which the external features of the creatures, maintain are incredible, watch how nature is so elegant and beautiful that no painter ever can draw or imitate. Notice that the best and most expensive paintings are those, which carry close resemblance to nature. Elegance of the Human Organs: Notice the head, breast, arm, leg; face, eye, ear, eyebrow, mouth, nose�etc. then notice the constructive image they make, none better or more beautiful can be imagined. Notice the beautiful eyes of man, the black eyeball amid a dark or green or blue circle swimming into the white space, the elegant neat eyelashes that surround all this. Notice how accurately drawn the eyebrows over the eyes, then come down to behold the pink lips, how they part to show the beautifully arranged white teeth� what a beautiful face man has, what a beautiful picture whose fabric is flesh, skin and hair�So beautiful to the degree that only those who are oversensitive and who posses a noble taste can describe it. No picture ever is more beautiful than the innovator sublime�s creation. He has composed man in the best shape and the most beautiful face, and the most elegant stricter of body down to the feet. Anybody with a sense of beauty can easily feel that the least change on this wonderful shape will make man ugly; rather it can never be imagined in a shape other than the present. Nothing is more beautiful or splendid than Allah�s creation; rather there is no beauty ever except in what Allah has created. Beauty of trees and plants: How beautiful is the sight of trees and plants, so beautiful that nobody can but loves them� Flowers represent perfection and beauty they attract the hearts: Flowers, roses, lilies, forget me notes, arcadia and other kinds of flowers race with their splendor and color to charm the people. In addition to the charm, beauty and attraction, tederness and perfumes make man cheerful and happy. Now is it possible that all this elegance and beauty is made at random? If we bring some flowers petals and arrange them together to make a flower, can we produce a flower similar to that colorful fragrant flower dangling from the branch?[56] Monotheism

The Oneness of Almighty God The arguments of Tawheed: There are so many arguments and reasons for proving the unity of God, whatever we have brought out from the Qur'anic verses; Traditions and the philoSophy books are as follow: (1) The argumet of corruption and destruction and annihilation of the world. (2) The argument of the unity of universal system. (3) The argument of Divine's legislation and guidance. (4) The argument of fact and reality. (5) The argument of none existing of two opposed aspects for a doctrine. (6) The argument of specification. (7) The argument of distinction. (8) The argument of a pure existence. (9) The argument of requirement. (10) The argument of combination. (11) The argument of simplicity. (12) The argument of respite.

The first argument of Tawheed: The argument of corruption and destruction and annihilation of the world. Allah said: [If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder.][57] Explanation: Creating of the world has done by the law of perfect system. If there may be two Necessary Existents and one of them is stronger than another in power, so the one should be weaker then the first in the same condition. In another hand, if both of them are effective in a same condition, then both of them should be unable, because the knowledge and policy of both two in the perfect world may want creation of the world and these two want to prevent each other, because every one of them is perfect. It is quite impossible that a creation is reasoned of two perfect causes. So� creating of the world by both or by only one of them is impossible. If it is created by two of them, then by this condition the perfect cause is combined of two� and both of them are unable as it is only the perfect cause. In another hand, if one of them is capable of creating, he subdues another one. But it is impossible that, Necessary Existent may be subdued. By this way it is proved that, Necessary Existent is must be one and only one. So it is clear that the meaning of the verse [If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder.] by the word "Ilah" required destruction of the world, because both "Ilah" are Necessary Existents and perfect reason and prevent each other for creating, as the result of that will be demolition, annihilation of the world. If the meaning of "Fasad" in the verse is irregularity, this argument may not apply and then should apply the regular system, which will come next. The second argument of Tawheed: The argument of the unityuniversal system. Allah said: [And never was there with Him any other god, in that case would each god has certainly taken away what he created and some of them would certainly have overpowered others.] [58] Which has come in Tafseer Al Mizan, Vol.15, P.62, at the commentary of this verse is as follows: plurality of god may not imaginable but they may be separated in their Divinity and LordshiP. And Lordship in a part of the world means that they are independent in their sovereignty. Evidently, which is created by one of them (two) is different from which is created by another. Inevitably the result of that creation is every one of those creations is independent in their thoughts and coming into existence, so that the united chain of discipline in the thought of current world will be cut off. Discipline of the human world will go invain (cut off), also as like as in the different kind of animals, trees, in the soil and water. As it is famous that there is still the united chain of discipline in this world, it is a final document of existence of one God in the world (no different gods). It is called in Qur'anic verse: [In that case would each god have certainly taken away what he created,] That is meant: If there are so many gods, then they must be divided with which they created from others. It is also said in the Qur'anic verse: [And some of them certainly would have overpowered others.] That means: If there were so many gods some of them might be superior to others. It is also avoided for plurality of god; because the plans and policies, which are used in the world, are divided into two kinds. Some of them are still besides others, as plan in the water and in the fire. And some of them are still over others. The second groups of policies are advanced from others and they have sovereignty to others. There are so many policies, which are common and general for example, in the world, which have sovereignty over the particular policies of trees and animals. Like this, which policy is used over the all of animals generally, that has sovereignty over the particular kinds of animal; like this, the common policy that is used over the global skies, have superiority over the particular global. So that Allah the Almighty from who has issued the common and general policy is superior over the particular creator who have an individual policy. Every one of these particulars creators is under control and power of Allah the Almighty and that has no incompatibility with the meaning of Divinity (Lordship). Arguments of the unity of universal system in Traditions: It is narrated in Usool Al Kafi "Al Tawheed book� Tradition No.5: Abu Abdillah peace be upon him said:"When we saw a systemic creation, a running ship, day, night, sun and moon, we got believe that they are made according to an accurate method and system, and there is an intelligent arranger." The statement of this document in the philosophy books: Sadrul Muta Allehin said in "Al Mabda Wal Maad", P.45: Translation:

Having connection with beings and saving regularity in them is as an example of a string of beads (ball of rosary or chaplet) in a single thread. It leads that the creator, efficient and preserve of that creatures trueone only. If there were two creators in the world, their chain might be divided and the connection will must go in vain. Like that God said: [In that case each god would have certainly taken away whaevert he has created.] After then he said: "The nature of the world which is connected by its kinds, parts and with their changing results: this rule is established all over the world. It shows that god is single and only one." Explanation: About the connection with different existing parts of body should be said: All of the body among solids, trees, animals and men themselves are �Moedd� (Arabic term�Moedd� is a thing, which is the preface of existing of a thing). Nourishment of trees, animals and men are from solid things: and other hand nourishment of animals and men are from trees; nourishment of men and some of animals are from another thing, it is a document of necessity of existing them to each other. By this system every one of them after nourishment by another is changed to parts of that another animal. Man and animal are died and changed into soil: from that soil plant grows, every one of them are changed in an individual condition: this system is used in universal creation. Which is the true discoverer from united world system and one plan, this system indicates that all of them are created by only one creator, and he changed every one of them into another by his own thought in his creating world. The argument of �the united system� in the thought of natural science: From the thought of natural science must be said: All of the creatures of the world are closed and connected with one another, the law of nature have exact sovereignty over all of them by which condition there is a law and regularity in the structure of the world. Even over the atoms of the world have also that sovereignty. If we study the advanced natural science, there is a strong key of hope for study the sovereignty of natural law over total world. From that landscape it is clear that all of the parts of world are connected and closed by one another. Movement of global skies that every one of them moves through their particular way and there are regular distances among them, they do not collision one another; this also indicates the united discipline in the world. Rotation of the world and another nine planets around the sun in their axis, like this rotation of sun with others around the Milky Way also indicate the united discipline in that creatures; life of trees, animals and men have a direct connection with them. The world's movement by its own causes for day and night, the movement of earth around the sun in a year reaches sunlight to the earth by an estimated way. Balance of animals and plants in their using oxygen and CO2 is another example for united discipline in the world in their creation. Every kind of the plants, forests, trees, vegetables and all of the growing grasses on to buildings need CO2 for their existence. In other hand men and animals use oxygen and leave carbon dioxide. The third argument of Tawheed: Divine's legislation and guidance. God who is the source of grace by which the condition genetic grace diffuses from Him, Divine grace must be diffuses from Him also; for reaching ourselves to perfection He should introduce Himself and guide us. All of the prophets have given the news of oneness of God, God also have confirmed and attested them with miracle. They have arose (appointed as a prophet) and given evidence of oneness and single God. If there might be another god in the world, then he must be arose his prophet. As it is not happened so there is no god but Allah and he is only one and single. In Nahjul Balaghah, page 918, letter No. 31 to Al Hasan Ibn Ali (peace be upon them) has come as follow: (O� my son, know that if there had been a partner with your Lord, his Messengers too should have come to you and you would have seen signs of his authority and power and you should know his deeds and qualities. But He is only one God as he has described Himself. No one can dispute with Him in His authority. He is from even and will be forever. He is before all things without any beginning. He will remain after all things without any end. He is far too great to have his Divinity proved by the encompassing heart or eye. Allamah Majlisy in his Haque Al Yaqueen said for attesting that: "It is an exact document because Necessary Existent must be able to perfectness and absolute grace. When one God send 124 thousand prophets for introducing Himself and praying to Himself, if there was another god beside Him (May God pardon me) he must be send prophet for in introducing himself and praying to himself also, so either he is not powerful or not Hakeem (scholar) or ignorant and Jealous, and no one of these are not correct for Necessary Existent.

 

We may say: "These argument still over three introductions which are proved the following discussions." 1. The Necessary Existence requires the wisdom and the actions should be completely clear, elaborated and perfect. 2. The favour is necessary, if it is considered as His Exalted action, and then it is necessary for Him, and if it is considered as a duty of obligatee, then it is necessary for him to feel and respond it. 3. Sending the prophets and Messengers is necessary as a Divine's favourite. The fourth argument of Tawheed: The fact and reality. Something could be defined as a Necessary Existence by two ways: One of them is that the reality of that thing should be Necessary Existence, and another is accidental which is by meanings and example of a thing or perSon but reality of that thing is another thing, for example: Defining a perSon as astriker and white. When defining of a Necessary Existent is like this type may not be reality and essence of that Necessary Existent and that Necessary Existent needs a reason for existence. The thing, which is not a Necessary Existent, is a possible existence. Calling Necessary Existent to a possible existence needs a reason, which should be a Necessary Existent and that is a real Necessary Existent. If we suppose that there are two Necessary Existents and every one of them is Necessary Existent, but their differentiation, which is caused numerous of them, is not reality of that Necessary Existent. Because, speciality of each one is defer to their common virtues: and Mumkinul Wojud means: A thing, which may be existed or not so� it is called possible existence. Because, common virtues of them are only Necessary Existent, so their specialties of each other are not Necessary Existent. As a result it is proved that, sourse of numerous is in possible existence and there is no way for numerous in Necessary Existent. The fifth argument of Tawheed: None-existance of two opposed aspects for a doctrine. Description of this argument is containing as bellow: (1) Indicating a single meaning over numerous examples without participating in their single side, which caused to indicate that meaning is impossible. (2) If two examples are seemed for meaning of Necessary Existent; two examples are either different in their reality or joint. (3) If they are different in their reality taking a single meaning from them is impossible (by the condition of first point). If they are common in their reality, either they are out of their essence, which required: that is not Necessary Existent or they are not side of their reality. (4) If they are inside of their reality either they are total reality of them, by this condition numerous of them are by Araz[59] which required to cause, or they are some reality of them. Rest of them is not Necessary Existent (because they caused of numerous). As the result, second existence (numerous) must be possible existence. So the existence of numerous Necessary Existents is impossible. The sixth document of Tawheed: The specification. Sheikh Al Rais has mentioned this argument in "Al Isharat" and "Al shifaa".He said in Al Isharat:[60]"If a Necessary Existent is specified according to its specification, then there is not any other Necessary Existent except it, and if it was not so then it is a caused.

 

Explanation: If two Necessary Existents are seemed, whose are another one not same one, another every one of them are having identicalness which is another identicalness of another. It is not any condition except two� and both low we impossible either it being identicalness of Necessary Existent for being Necessary Existent, so it must be the only Necessary Existent not except him. If it is another Necessary Existent except that necessity of this thought is not right existing Necessary Existent can not any thing except himself, but it is another one, so it is a contradiction and contradiction is impossible. Or it is identicalness of Necessary Existent for not being Necessary Existent. So identicalness and existence of him must be an effect, so it is not Necessary Existent. And it is also a contradiction and contradiction is impossible. The seventh Argument of Tawheed: The Distinction. The utterance of this argument is: If the Necessary Existent by reality is numerous, every one of them must be separated from another, and separation (distinction) of two Necessary Existents is impossible. Because: If that distinction is just reality of them, Necessary Existence is out of their reality: and come to their reality means: substance and nature of a thing. Reality, so no one of them is not by reality of Necessary Existent: and if distinction is not just of their reality, reality of them should not be numerous: and if their reality is not numerous, reality of them must be one and single: and automatically their selection will be one and single and there is not way for numerous. Description of this argument: If the distinction by Araz[61] is necessity of reality automatically they will be two Necessary Existent, because the both Necessary Existents are both real, and if they are not necessity of their reality one of that two Necessary Existence is needed to a reason: that reason is not any thing without one of that two Necessary Existent: every one of that two Necessary Existence (that is reason for another) automatically having a speciality and distinction which is not in another: and it is needed a circle (circle for creating a thing is impossible), because he has no other distinction without that. The eighth argument for Tawheed: The pure existence Necessary Existent who is the creator of total creatures, source of all existence is the pure and absolute existence. Identifying and distinctness of him is just his pure existence, so numerous of him is impossible. All which may be seemed second for him that return to him just like first, because the second have to a distinction from the first but we seem that, that (second) is a pure existence and his distinction is in his pure existence, so he have no distinction from the first, but he is just as first, and Necessary Existence is only one and single and he has no the second (it is second to none). It is clear from here that essence of Necessary Existent directs his oneness, by which the Holy Qur'an said: [Allah bears witness that there is no god, but He.] [62] This argument is from Talvihat, which is narrated in Asfar, Vol.1, and P.135.

The ninth argument of Tawheed: The existence. Necessary Existent must be in there conditions, they are: Necessary Existent exigencies of unity (singularity), or exigencies of numerous, or not in unity and in numerous in every there conditions numerous of Necessary Existent is impossible. In the first condition it is clear because his reality (substance) exigencies of unity (singularity). But in the second condition which exigencies of numerous: numerous can not come without singularity because every numerous is organized by units: and every one units of Necessary Existent (which exigencies of numerous for being Necessary Existent perfect not singularity) will not come in existence: and if a unit can not come in existence, numerous (which is organized by units) will not come in existence also. As a result it is proved that numerous in the second condition is also impossible. But in their conditions (which the reality of Necessary Existent not in unity and not in numerous) coming any one into existence is impossible, because in his singularity (which is just in his existence) needs a reason: and as it is seemed necessary so needing necessary to a reason is a contradiction, and contradiction is impossible: as a result it is proved that the substance of Necessary Existent exigencies of singularity and numerous of that is impossible The tenth argument of Tawheed: The combination. There are stated in Durrul Fawaid, V.1, and P.439 as following: If Necessary Existent is numerous, necessity of that is compoundness, but it is proved that, compoundness of Necessary Existent is impossible. For being compoundness they should differ from each other by kinds or by units. If they are differed by kinds, necessity of that, compoundness of every ones substance is builds from Genus and Differentia (group and kind). And if they are differed by unit's necessity of that, compound ness of every one is build from two things: Common substance individual speciality, which made the different from each other. Another description: If the Necessary Existents are numerous, then every one needs some specialties from others (speciality defers them from each other). Speciality of every one is by its total substance or by some of substance or by out of substance in the first condition for being a Necessary Existent that is out of every one's substance, so the substance of no one is Necessary Existent. And in the second condition, substance of every one is compound from two parts. And in the third condition, they are compound by substance and individual speciality, which made them different from each other The eleventh argument of Tawheed: The simplicity.

This argument is applied in the (Asfar), Vol.1, and P.135-136. The utterance of that is as follow: Total sides are fixed in Basatat of Necessary Existent. So if he does not exist in any stage, his substance will not be existed in that stage for his evidence. Necessity of that, his substance is build by two different things of existence and non-existence, so he is not vast actually. The result of this preface is that every perfectness and glorious are still over Necessary Existent, if these kinds of perfectness and glorious are seen in another existence they have been come from him and he is as the glorious that has sexed to another, so if Necessary Existence is numerous every one are of these a speciality that have not in another and as Necessary Existence is certain for all perfectness, source of all kindness and glorious by his substance so the existence which is not from him has a contradiction with being a Necessary Existent. The twelfth argument of Tawheed: The respite (a short period of rest from something). In (Usool Al Kafi) Vol.Al Tawheed, part: Hudus Al Alam, Hadith No.5, from Ali Ibn Ibrahim from his father from Abbas Ibn Amr Al Fuquaimy from Hesham Ibn Hakam from Imam Sadique (peace be upon him) has narrated in the reply of Jandiki: "If you seen and demand two god, necessity of that, there was a distance into them. So their existance will come by which differed then three gods, and if you demand two gods, necessity of that, there was a distance from every one of two with third. So the fifth god will be existed. Like this way there the number of god will be icreased. The utterance of this argument is as following: If two existents are supposed to be Necessary Existents, the Necessary Existence is not out of their reality, so obviousely there should be a difference in the fact of both of them or one of them to distinguish them and diffesr them from one another. Then that thing (which differs between the both Necessary Existents) will be a Necessary Existent, and for being a Necessary Existent it joints with both of them, so the Necessary Existent will be three and the third one of them should be contained a speciality, which differs him from other two. In this condition that speciality should be a Necessary Existent. So that there will be four Necessary Existents; and this fourth Necessary Existent should be contained a speciality, which differs him from other three, so there will be five Necessary Existents, and by this way the number of Nexessary Existents will be increased infinitely and it will not stop on a fixed number. Therefore it is impossible. The author of Asfar in the book of sharh-e- Usool-e-Kafi, Vol.3 and P.38, after reciting this argument stated: If it is said that, speciality of two things from each other by their total substance and joint of them in a thing of brain that is not existed in outside but necessity of their substance in brain. We will reply: It is a famous doubt that have not solved but every one who knows reality of Necessary Existence also knows that which thing and nature with him will be being reality is before than containing reality but he is reality himself, which is proved only himself that other things of containing (nature) with him is turned out as a result if two god are seemed, then necessity of existent is not out of their reality: so that there should be existed an another thing (out of their joint reality) in outside that by which can differ from each other and can numerous, because including of that by the join purpose is not as like as including Differentia to Genus that, Genus is ambiguous nature and existing of that with Differentia and including Differentia to Genus is a including existence to ambiguous that both two of them are same existence (because ambiguous existence in outside is impossible and his existence is just coming existence) but reality of Necessary Existent (which is reality of outside) may including differentiation to that including is a coming existence to another which will be being two numerous existences understand this matter and take that�s usefulness: That is the Al Tawheed which is attested by the Holy Tradition for Almighty God. The description of the saying of Al Asfar's author is as follow: A Mahiyyat (Essence) (quiddity), which is combined of a genus and a differentia becomes into existence with an existence. If there will be two existences (that one comes after another) then there must be two Mahiyyats (Essences) not one. So genus and differentia are united in outside, although that is numerous in the main: so that genus of man (animal) about its Mahiyyat (Essence) by the think of man is not animal at all but animal joints with him by a kind: by which condition, if animal has come into existence without differentia that will not genus. So Genus is an ambiguous part of Mahiyyat (Essence) and that cannot be existed without differentia. As their (genus and differentia) existence in out side is united so� that existence has no more than one real existence. So there is not compound ness (by Genus and differentia) in out side: and that reality is only differentia and Genus and is only necessary for that�s existence. On the contrary of that is that reality is not only Genus because, if differentia is necessary for Genus with coming into existence in another kind (which is contained another differentia) is a contradictory with another differentia, so that which is existence in outside is differentia only for this reason it is called that, reality of a thing is last differentia: and which is the existence of a Mahiyyat (Essence) is his last differentia and Genus does not interfere to existence a substance. God�s substance is not combined of parts The substance of our Almighty God is pure from any combination, whether that is in outside or mentally, even from the combination of Mahiyyat (Essence) (substance and existence). Proving the uncombination of Necessary Existent by the external parts It is proved by some following arguments: (1) Parts of a thing are prior to that thing; so the presence of a thing is necessitous to existing part and that is inconsistent with Necessary Existent for being that. (2) Every one of an existent, which is combined by some parts, is mixed with his existent, absence, present and occultation. Description: Every thing which is combined of two external parts, that has two sides and they are not similar; they are different from each other. So total thing of a part is absent from another part, and another part is also absent from the first part. As the Necessary Existent has hard (deep) existence and there is no way to defect, decrease and absent in Him. So that combination of Necessary Existent by parts is impossible. (3) Necessary Existent is just existence (it has narrated in monotheism) and He has no Mahiyyat (Essence) and every thing which has no Mahiyyat (Essence) (quiddity) has no external part and internal part (in mind) because every thing which is vast in Aqul (sense) that is vast in outside also. (4) The whole existence which is existed just by his parts either he is existed by his parts in present in this time every part is strong in His existence or total existence still in present and all of His parts in future and that has a contradiction with Necessary Existent. So that Necessary Existent has no part and He is not combined by any part. Which parts combine may not be Necessary Existent.

 

The uncombination of Necessary Existent (the Almighty God) from substance and existence: The Mahiyyat (Essence) (substance) of Necessary Existent is His Anniyyat (Himself). Any possible existence is combined of Mahiyyat (Essence) and Wojud (existence) but the Mahiyyat (Essence) of Necessary Existent is just His Existence and His Mahiyyat (Essence) is His Anniyyat. For proving that we will place three documents they are as follows: 1- Wojud and Mahiyyat (Essence) are united in outside; and which is occupying in outside is a thing that indicates to that Mahiyyat (Essence), for example a man indicates to human and to Wojud. And so it is urged into the philosophers: which is origin and occupying in outside? And which one of them may be taken? In any condition may be seemed that those two are different in the mind. After this mind analyses, Aqul (sense) orders that Mahiyyat (Essence) has no existence by his substance and his existence in outside need a reason which give him existence. It is clear that reason of Wojud is another thing from substance, and it has a priority over that. This is the result that: The Necessary Existent is a pure existence without Mahiyyat (Essence) (substance), because for giving that existence a reason was needed: and that reason must be a thing from Wojud: and which is needed to reason cannot be Necessary Existent. 2- (I) If the Necessary Existent contains Mahiyyat (Essence) without Wojud, then Aqul (sense) orders, that is a possible existence. (II) Because any thing cannot be out of these three conditions, either it is Mumtaneul Wojud[63] or Necessary Existent or Possible Existence. (III) If that is Mumtaneul Wojud, has a contradiction with Necessary Existent. (IV) If that is Necessary Existent. Firstly: It means that Mahiyyat (Essence) prepares field for that�s existence, so that existence is a creation of Mahiyyat (Essence). And he is not Necessary Existent by his reality (substance). Secondly: Mahiyyat (Essence) has no evidence by creation, although there are numerous evidences in presence. And that has a contradiction with Necessary Existent (for being that). (V) And if Mahiyyat (Essence) is possible existence by himself, so Necessary Existent is a Mahiyyat (Essence) of possible existence. So that he is not Necessary Existent. (VI) By these introductions it is proved that Necessary Existent has no Mahiyyat (Essence): in other words his Mahiyyat (Essence) is just Wojud (existence) not any thing: and it cannot mix with Mahiyyat (Essence) and Wojoud. Result: Necessary Existent (which gives existence all of the creatures and existence) is the source of Wojud (existence) he is a pure and net existence and an absolute existence.

 

Explanation: Absolute Wojud: Which is Necessary Existent by His reality, blessings, great, limitless and extension has no limitation in His limit. But Absolute Wojud may be applied as any Wojud and limit (which is limited) by the condition He has no contradiction with any limit. That is issued by reality of Rububi (reality of Lord): and that is limited by belonging to any Mahiyyat (Essence): and Mahiyyat (Essence) and Hudud (limits) is not any thing but Wojud. (3) If the Necessary Existent has Mahiyyat (Essence) that is either Jauhar (substance) or Araz (accident). Mahiyyat (Essence) is not out from these two conditions: because; Jauhar is a Mahiyyat (Essence) that when he comes into existence in a thing, does not come into existence in another thing. But Araj (accident) is a Mahiyyat (Essence) when he comes into existence in a thing also comes into existence in another thing Jauhar is the highest. He comes into existence by one of His kinds: and that is needed to differentia (section), which indicates to a kind. So if theNecessary Existent has Mahiyyat (Essence) he is needed to two things: speciality and common virtues. But it is contradiction with Necessary Existent. In next we will describe this document Insha-Allah. Another point: Jauhar is a genus that is existed in possible existence also. So that he is not necessary Existent that can be a part of Necessary Existent (because it is impossible). Result: By which that Amirul Muminin Ali (peace be upon him) stated in the first sermon of Nahjul Balaghah: Allah has no limitation. So He has no Mahiyyat (Essence), because Mahiyyat (Essence) has a limitation, if we define human as a thoughtful animal. Another result: Reality of Allah is not perception for any one, because when we percept any thing then we can say: that have two things Mahiyyat (Essence) and Wojud: and which comes into our mind is Mahiyyat (Essence) and meanings of that Wojud but his external Wojud does not come into mind, by this condition, mind changes in outside. By this way we understand that: external Wojud is not perception for mind. Meanings: Wojud is one of the clearest things but its depth (Konh) is hidden in his last point (of limitation). Being a thing is clear for all but reality of that external existence is not comprehensible for any one, because coming external Wojud into mind is impossible and which is come into mind is Mahiyyat (Essence) of a thing and a Necessary Existent has not Mahiyyat (Essence) so no one can percepts its depth (Konh). Man can percept his existence only. Allah has not a body (Jesm) Rational and traditional arguments indicate that being body of God is impossible. But there are so many documents in wisdom, which prove about being body impossible. For Necessary Existent�s example in the follows has stated: (1) Jesm (body) is that which contained three dimensions length, width and depth. So Jesm is compound by three dimensions. And every one of them is another one. Anything of compound is needy to his parts for being existence (by which he is organized). And which is needy for being existence is not Necessary Existent. (2) Every Jesm (body) is limited from six sides, and it is impossible for Necessary Existent that it may be have a side of non-existence. Being limited of Jesm is proved by different documents as follow: (A) If the Jesm may be unlimited (infinity), then we will seem a point in that Jesm those two lines have come out from that points which make an angle: and every line of that two lines which is seemed by an unlimited Jesm, must be unlimited also. And as the respite of two lines of angle is about the length of two lines: and as the respite of angle feced by two lines, so two lines of angle are also limited.

 

Result: It is proved that the Jesm, which is exteded by two prolonged lines, is impossible to be unlimited. (B) If a line is seemed that is unlimited, beside this we will also seem a globe which moves around his two poles that one pole is on the higher point of that line and another pole is on the lower point of that line. Before his starting movement we will seem another line (by width) that the globe leaves out of that line by moving, and parallel line is continued unlimited to unlimited. Then: When globe will move to the unlimited line (which is seemed), then external line of globe with unlimited line will be cut into point to point. In the every two line where the first point is cut there is no another point for cut. If there would be like this point, it was the last cutting point. So it is proved that the cutting points of every two lines are the last point of every two lines: and every two lines are limited: and unlimited line is impossible. So it is impossible that a Jesm (body) may not be unlimited because every Jesm is contained by three dimensions: length width and depth: and they (three dimensions) cannot be exteded. (C) If there is a point from which lines of Jesm are continued, then that point is the starting point for every six points: and that is compared with original line. By this condition, if another part of cutting point will go infinite then complete and uncompleted line will be same and it is impossible, and if the cutting parts of line are shorter than original line it must be limited than the original line, which is not more than that. So that (line) is also limited. So the body, which was seemed unlimited, must be limited. Shortly we can see; if the rest of lines after cut are equal with original, necessary have a part of line is equal with total: and that is impossible. And if that is shorter than total, necessarily that line is limited. (3) Every Jesm (body) is created, so it is impossible that Necessary Existent may be Jesm (a body). For provining the creation of Jesm (body) note the following analyses: (I) Evidently Jesm (body) may not be existed without movement or clam, because either Jesm is resident in a place or he is moving from place to place. (II) Meaning of movements: Jesm was in a place at first but after then he is in another place. But meaning of clam: Jesm was in a place at first and after then he is in the same place. So (as a result) every Jesm is built by two beings: to being in a place and not in another place. (III) To being that in a place and after then in its place or another place are two different existences; and it is possible that one of them is created and another is not created. (IV) Every Jesm is built by a special existence, which make him different from other existence: and that is in a special time and place, and others every Jesm is in another special time and place. As the source of speciality is his existence and it is his substance (reality) so every necessity and speciality comes from that existence, so changing his special time and place occur his changing existence. (V) To being means existence, so changing of that is changing of existence. So that existence of a body always in changing: and existence of him in present differs to his past, so movement and changing are in his own existence not in a thing out of his existence which is another existence. In other words: movement is in existence and Juhar (substance) of Jesm are existence, and proceed that every Jesm contains aniline movement. (VI) Reality of that�s movement to movement is his existence and non-existence (to being and to disperse). Yes, if Mahiyyat (Essence) of Jesm (body) is seemed, movement and calm are not into the Mahiyyat (Essence) but they are on his accidents. But his (Jesm) existence and being are not different his first existence and beings, because Jesm has not two existence in a same time and same place (that one of his existence and another past existence), but also he has no existence more then one. His changing in the second is non-existence in the first, and that is another (new) existence and like this for others conditions. Although they have a close connection in their continuous changing, and then that are called a single Jesm, which calls the connected movement in a single movement. If it is said: Arabic word �Mata� and �Ain� means nine accidental topics, they have two sides one side is the Jesm (body) and another is the epoch (time), which is taken from movement of globes. We will reply that: By the ancients believe epoch means that which is taken from suns movement around the earth, or by the right believe which is taken from earth�s movement around the sun. So by those relatives (movement of substance and reality) epoch is mixed with them: and movement of reality and movement of earth is equal; and they are taken from the movement of bodies (reality) whether globe or earth have to a movement or not. (VII) So Jesm (body) is always event: and his next event is new and that is another event. (VIII) As a result it is proved that: Necessary Existent is not Jesm (body) at all and it is impossible, because non-existence of Necessary Existent is impossible; because not being Permanent Existence is impossible and existence of every thing is from Him: and He is the Creator of all things (containing body, land, sky and all other things, even epoch, residences and movements). The spirituality of God (not material and incomporeal of God) in the Holy Qur'an and the Traditions of infallibles (peace be upon them) There are so many verses in the Holy Qur'an, which prove the spirituality of God. For example: [Whither you turn thither is Allah�s purpose.][64] Hadid surah, verse No.6: [He is with you wherever you are.][65] Qaf surah, verse No.16: [And We are nearer to them than their life-vein.][66]

But by the purpose of Qur'anic verses Allah has domination over the empyrean. Sheikh Mufid in his book sharh Al Aquaed, page 59 has stated: That means: �Arsh� means kingdom and country, so His Arsh means His kingdom and country: and He is on over the Arsh means He has domination over His kingdom and country. After then He indicates to the Arabic poetries and said, Arabians use domination for �Estilaa� by which came in the Arabic poetries. Allamah Tabarsi also said in his famous Tafseer Majmaul Bayan, Vol.6, page 628, about this verse: His kingdom is settled and constant this means as about the Arabic word and when a kingdom of a country may be settled and constant they say: �Estawaa Al Malik Alal Arsh�. And when a kingdom goes disordered they say: �Thalla Arshihi�, but the King (Allah) has no chair and he does not seat on that chair. Famous commentator Fakhruddin Razi said in his Tafseer, Vol.16, page 116 (by which the correct meanings come): first part of verse indicates to Allah�s existence, power and knowledge: and last part also means just like that: so if (Istawa Alal Arsh) comes in middle point between those two parts, which has no connection with them will be risque. Rest of the subjects by which Fakhruddin Razi said about Qur'anic verse also speaks about power and knowledge of our lord (Allah). In the Raad surah before this word Allah has spoken about creating skies and earth, after then about the sun and moon. And in Furqan surah before this word He has spoken about creating skies and earth, after then has given the news of our Lord�s knowledge. And in the sejdah surah at first He has spoken about creating skies and earth, and after then He has announced that there is no guardian and preemptor except Allah in the worlds. And in the Hadid surah before that word He has spoken about creating skies and earth and after then has spoken about His surrounding knowledge about the worlds. And in the Taha surah He has spoken about skies and earth and after then He has announced: which is in the skies, earth and under ground all are our Lord�s kingdom.

The Traditions:

Amirul Muamineen peace be upon him said in the Nahjul Balaghah at the first sermon: Thus whoever attaches attributes to Allah, recognizes His like (similarity): and who recognizes His like, regards Him two; and who regards Him recognizes parts for Him: has mistook Him; and who mistook Him, has pointed at Him: and who pointed Him, has admitted limitations for Him: and who admitted limitations for Him, has numbered Him. Whoever said in what is He, has held Him in another existence: and whoever said on what is He, he has hold Him, as He is not on something else. He is a being but not through phenomenon of coming into being He is existed but not from non-existence, He is with every thing but not in physical nearness. He is different from every thing but not in physical separation. From Usool-Al-Kafi (Part: Al Tawheed, section No.: Bodyness), the first Hadith has narrated from Imam Sadique (peace be upon him) that he said: Allah is neat and clean that nobody knows how He is, there is no thing just like Him, He hears and sees, He does not come in limitation, He is not touched by anything, nobody can see Him and touch, nothing can contained Him, He is not a body and not a figure, He has no way to limitation and identify. Second Hadith from just that part and division: it is narrated from Abul Hasan (peace be upon him) that: He is neat and clear that nothing else just like Him, he is not body and not figure. Third Hadith from just that part and div: narrated from Imam Reza (peace be upon him) he said: Allah is covered whithout any veil, covered veiled without any cover, is built without seeing, is qualified without any figure, is definite without any body, there is no god but Allah the Almighty. Fourth Hadith just from the same part and division: narrated from Abu Ibrahim Musa Ibn Ja'afar (peace be upon him) that he said: there is no thing just like Him, His speaking is worse, evil, immoral, inferior, and rotten that who said Allah contains body, figure and parts. Allah is higher and more pure than that. Fifth Hadith from just like up: Narrated from Amirul Muamineen Ali (peace be upon him) that he was asked: Where was our Lord Allah before creating the skies and earth? He replied: This question is about the place, Allah was existed but there was no place. Sixth Hadith from just like up: Narrated from Hazrat Sadique (peace be upon him). He said about a perSon: Woe is to him, has not he known that Jesm (body) is limited and figure is also limited. Whenever any thing may be limited, may be short and broad to Him, and every thing, which may be short or broad, is creature. Narrator asked: What we say about Allah? He replied: He is neither body nor figure, He is the creator of body and figure, He has no part and no end, no short and no excess, if our Lord Allah was like as said, and there would no difference between creator and creature. But He is the creator and He has a lot of difference with which He has created and has given figure. Because there is nothing just like Him, and He is not just like anything. Seventh Hadith from just like up: Narrated from Imam Musa Ibn Ja'afar (peace be upon him), he said about a parSon: Does not he know that body is limited, but Allah is another thing from what he said. I hate this word, Allah has neither body nor figure, He will not limit. Every thing except Him is creature. Every thing has come into existent by His will and wish and without any think and saying. In the book of Al Tawheed (Part: Al Kawn Wal Makan), second Hadeethis narrated by Imam Reza (peace be upon him) that he said: Allah has created the place when there was no place, and created the circumstance when there was no circumstance, He depends on His own power only. Then who was asked Him, stand up and by kissing Him said: give evidence of that, there is no god but Allah, and Mohammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) is His prophet, and Ali (peace be upon him) is His prophet�s executor, He was tutor and guardian for which prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) was tutor and guardian, and you are the executors of him, and you are the executor of them. Next Hadith from just like up is narrated from Imam Ali that he was asked by any one: Where was our lord before creating the sky and earth? He replied, this question is about place, Allah was existed but there was no place. Next Hadith from just like up is narrated from Jurarah that, he said: I asked to Imam Baqir (peace be upon him): Was Allah existing but there was not any thing except Him? He replied:"Yes". Then asked: "So where did He exist?" He replied: �Hello Jurarah, you asked about impossibility, you asked about place but then there was no place.� Allah's general power

The falsehood of this saying that there will not be issued from an indirect cause except one thing. By the intellectual documents it is clear that, Allah is all of perfections and totally he is perfect. So many Qur'anic verses and traditions prove that universal power of Allah encompasses to all of existences without any distance for issuing those things, but some of philosophers have said: Nothing except a single thing has been issued by Allah, that is first Aqul (conscience) rest of the things have been issued by that Aqul, Allah�s power only encompasses that Aqul, and He has no power over those rest of things without any distance from Him.[67][68] This apology is not justifiable, that is not the limitation of power but power does not belong to the impossibility, because which thing has not been belonged power to that thing which is impossible by his reality (substance) for example, combining two contradictories, but the thing which may not be issued by him although that is possible existence because that is impossible by which he has a single prestige (which is legality not illegality). That is his limitation only not other things. They have mentioned the rull of "there will not be issued from that more than one" to prove this wrong theory. The rull correct and we shall state this argument, but the mistake is in its requirement (Muqutaza), which is not correct about Allah.

The rule of "there will not be issued from one thing more than one", (Al Wahid La Yasdur Minhu Illal Wahid) and proving it that the rull has no the condition of none issuing of the world from Allah except through a means The above rule means: More than one does not issue for a single cause, but it does not mean, more than one does not issue from a single subject (even for different purpose). And in other words: for a single cause does not issue more than one effect, but the subject (who is empowered and has complete cause for issuing different things and total conditions for those things come available) can issue more than one. So there are no avoided things in the subject (that more than one effect does not issue from a single subject for various causes) as we see in ourselves (our different works). Rational souls of human are in different purposes, and every works, which are issued by him are parts (of body) have done just for the cause of rational souls. As in the Asfar Vol. 8, page- 221 stated: which are attributed to document of all perceptions the soul is the rational soul, and just like this stimulant of all movements which are issued by brutal and herbaceous power of men is the rational soul. This is a noble subject and there are so many documents about that). It is clear that source of all human works is existed by rational soul, not his Mahiyyat (Essence) (quiddity) because which is issued by that Wojud (existent) is the Wojud (existent) not Mahiyyat (Essence). Wojud of a single rational soul is vast though that�s Mahiyyat (Essence) is mixed with genus and differentia. But the Wojud of genus and differentia is single not more, if every one of them had separate Wojud then transporting one over another, and holding true rational animal for a single example was not correct. More over it is for the above rule that: From a single one does not issue more than single one, and just like this more than two do not issue more than single two� and from single three do not issue more than single three-----. So if it is said, issuing different effects from man is the said of his combination with Genus and differentia of nearer and remoter and necessary to that is, more than one can not issue if they are not more than one Genus and differentia. But provided that Genus and differentia of man are limited (four to five) but the effects, which are issued from him, are innumerable. Cause of numerous functions of the soul instead of being single From every perSon of man issue innumerable effects in his life that he is the subject of all of those effects: and the cause of those numerous are his wishes: and the cause of numerous wishes is numerous benefits and profits. A man with oneness existence is in his various effects for various profits, and his every profit of effect is about that effect, but the existence of all effects is just that man not those profits. In the Asfar, Vol. 8, page-222 stated: Human movements are optional mater, so stimulants of them are empowered and first movement of every empowered is his perceptions about aim of that movement as that is rational (movement or carnal movement or anger movement. Various kinds of facultative movements are issue from men. Some of them are by conscience; some of them are orders, some of them for soft touch of attraction and some of them for removing soft tough: and document of every perception and stimulant of human movement is a single thing. So it is clear that the meaning of above rule is more than one for a single purpose is not issue by a single one. It does not mean that, more than one even for various purposes do not issue by one. So� the Necessary Existent (Allah) is just the single world, by all of the things, all sides of good purposes, which interfere to complete world. A lot of existences are issue by Him. Every one of them for necessity of existence is not impossible. Which we have discussed about various effects from human soul for nearing to Gods issue have reminded in the Asfar Vol. 6, page-377 and stated: Look at the human effects that God has created him (human) for His Own example by the side of his reality, virtue and effect, we read in Lord�s saying and our prophet�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) saying: Who knows himself just he knows his Lord. Also stated in that book Vol. 8, page 223 about how a human soul issue various effects though he is a single soul: (issuing various effects by a single human soul is like the effects of god who is oneness and single one: and the saying of some of the philosophers systematic Wojud can not repulse the saying of other philosophers that all creatures of existent are by God. Hakeem sabzawary has proved in the marginal note of Asfar, Vol. 7, page 204 that: The author of Asfar have said in the past of soul of Asfar that it is by the above rule, but Fankarvo has concealed that rule about human soul. Necessity of that violation is which is imagined by some of philosophers about the above rule (La Yasdur Minhu Illal Wahid) that, Allah the Almighty has issued nothing but first Aqul (conscience) is wrong. Sufficiency of numerous thoughts (concepts) in the origin about issuing various things by that origin Believer of the rule nothing has been issued but the first Aqul (conscience) by Allah the Almighty without any distance have been said some points about issuing numerous thing by first Aqul: (1) First Aqul is possible existence by his soul, and Necessary Existent is another thing. (2) First Aqul is having Mahiyyat (Essence) and Wojud. (3) Aqul percepts himself and Allah the Almighty. (4) First Aqul is having presence and intuition.

It is clear that, numerous prestiges in the first Aqul is about concept and both two prestiges are united according to the Wojud. If it is wrong then first Aqul will be two Wojud (existence), and it require issuing two Wojud (existence) by Allah the Almighty, which repulse that wrong demand and proves that more than one Wojud (existence) are issued by Allah the Almighty. So that there is no doubt to deny that belief "nothing has been issued by Allah the Almighty without distance" because various concepts for example knowledge, power and others are true over Allah the Almighty just they are all united in the existence, not only this but also his analyzed knowledge is having previous concepts of numerous existences: and knowledge of every existence differs to another knowledge of existence and just like this His will and determination are also same. In next we will analyze and prove this. In the Asfar[69] Vol. 6, page- 223 after this purpose brings the saying of bamian, have said: (in brief this subject is that condition of cause and effect is not about the same being in unity and numerous, but which is impossible than cause of creature) All sides of welfare and speciality of diffusing existences are contained by Allah the Almighty Allah the Almighty contains all of the specialties that, defusing welfare, existence, growing parts of perfect order and perfect world take the source of existence from them. And all sides of welfare and speciality of diffusion for creating every parts of perfect world order are obtained by some ways for Allah the Almighty. The author of Asfar says in the book mabdaa and mayad, page- 61: saying of Imam Reza in his book al Mabahes Al Mashrakiyah astonished are that he has said: which is right in my thought that there is no objection to proving all of possible existence to Allah the Almighty, but they are two kinds, some of them by just of possibility that settlement to his Mahiyyat (Essence) needed which is issued by Allah the Almighty and they are issued without any condition: and some of them are not sufficient by just of possibility, but before that an effect must be issued, and last effect is the nearest cause of next effect, this effect is regulated by periodical movement. Then the possibilities, which collect the perfect cause for them, are issue by Allah the Almighty without any prohibition and stinginess, and interdictor has no impression to issuing them, but their impression is to collecting aptitude and to make conditions available. Researcher Tusy stated in the book sharh- e- Esharah, Vol. 3, P. 26: (Abul Barkat Baghdadi have taunted to them (these philosophers who believe to being intermediation) that they have supported of last stage to middle and middle stage to highest stage. And it is evident that all should be supported to the first origin, and intermediately is counted for Allah the Almighty after then researcher Tusy stated with analyzing the saying of these philosophers (saying of intermediately for Allah): (this remonstrance is like the literal remonstrance because all are united that all of the existence are issued by Allah the Almighty, and existence in the effect of Allah absolutely, so if they have carelessness to study supported to the effect by which is nearer to that (effect). So it has no in compatibility with that which put that as an origin and their own subjects who are stilled aver that by them. After them he said: Imam Reza (peace be upon him) is one of those persons that have given their world as frailty and slackness by just this cause and after this he made another objection by this purpose from Imam Reza that he said about them like this: "The subjects which are narrated about issuing more thing by first Aqul (conscience) are like the subjects of non existence or like those subjects which are stilled over all Mahiyyat (Essence)s and that is common into all of those". Now we will reply to this objection that the proving of their objection necessitous to intermediately: if those subjects are non existence subjects so causes and reasons are not only independent but also they are conditioned those conditions of cause of creator are different about them, and nonexistence lies beyond that competence. Another condition: in the Usool Al Kafi, part: Al Aroda Min sefat Alfel, Hadith No. 6: is stated by Imam Sadique (peace be upon him): Allah the most high creates the will and he creates other things with the will. We can understand by this Hadith: Which is issued by Allah the Almighty is the will and after that themselves issue all other things lonely with single will. Allah will have been longed to creating the complete world with all of the existences. This will be the present will not the natural will. In the Asfar, Vol. 3, page-225, it is stated that by which knowledge of Allah contains different ranks His will and wish are also contain different ranks.

 

Result: Every one of existence which is issued by Allah the Almighty is created by that will which Allah intents to that not another. So it is just about the above rule because it is known, this rule means, more then one is not issued by one side and this rule does not mean, more than one is not issued by one with numerous sides. Repulsing the saying Allah abandons the greeting world to any one Ascribing greeting power and epithetic power to any one except Allah is blasphemy and polytheism from the Imamiah point of view and the Traditions of Ahlul Bait (peace be upon them) Sheikh Saduque said in his book Etequadat, page 97-100: We believe about Ghollat (who has exaggerated about God) and Tafwiz (who believe to abandon) is that they are infidel to Allah. They have contempt about Allah more than the Jews, the Christian the Magi, the liberty, the Ahlul Bedat (the heresy supporters) and the astray. Allah has said: [ It is not meet for a mortal that Allah should give him the Book and the wisdom and prophethood, the he should say to men: Be my servants rather than Allah�s; but rather (he would say): Be worshippers of the Lord because of your teaching the Book and your reading (it yourselves).][70] And also has stated: [Don�t exceed the limits in your religion][71] Sheikh Mufid stated in his book Tashih Al Alekaed, page 131-136: "Ghollat means by dictionary exaggeration from limitation and boundary wall and come out from temperance." Allah has said: [O� the Book holders don't exaggerate in your religion.][72] Followers of the book! Be not exaggerating in your religion, and do not say anything except right to Allah. Allah prohibits the exaggeration about Isa (peace be upon him); he counts the gristions demand about Isa. Believers of Ghollat are the exaggerators to Islam and they are the perSons who exaggerate to Ali (peace be upon him) and other Imams (peace be upon them) from Imamate to Nabuvvat, and Ilahiyyat (Divinity). They are mislead are infidels. Ali (peace be upon him) has ordered to kill and burn them, other Imam (peace be upon them) has given order about them they have come out from Islam and they have turned into infidel. Mufaowez:

This is a group of exaggerators they have an speciality from Ghollat that, the Imams (peace be upon them) all are created and not primitive, they believe it but they have demanded that Allah the Almighty has created them only and rest of the world wide creatures are created by them (Imams) and this power is handed over to them by Allah the Almighty. In the Bihar Vol.25, page-347 stated: somebody have said: Allah the Almighty has created the Imams (peace be upon them) and the creating power is handed over to them, they create, provide daily bread, and kill them and Alive them. His saying has two possibilities: First possibility: They do this entire works by their own power and wish, and they are real creators of those things. This is a dear infidelity (blasphemy) and there are so many documents about this in the logical and traditional documents, and no intelligent believes that. Second possibility: Allah does all of these works with His will for example splitting of the moon, reviving the deads, turning stitch into python and others miracles which are issued by Allah the Almighty with the will of prophets for truth their prophetic demands. With this meaning wisdom does not know impossible that Allah has created them and reached them to perfect ness, and which is needed to rectifying the world wide has handed over to them, than he creates all of the things with their will. Though wisdom does none know that impossible but the Traditions not only deny that clearly but also deny absolutely. Creating and providing power is in the hand of Allah the Almighty absolutely in the idea of Qur'anic verses The Holy Qur'an declares first to last that creator and provider is only Allah the Almighty, and he has repulsed the creating and providing power except him, as we read in Qur'anic verses: [Is there any creator besides Allah who gives you the sustenance from the heaven and the earth?][73] [Or, who originates the creation, then reproduces it and who provides you the sustenance from the heaven and the earth.][74] [Say: who provides you the sustenance from the heavens and the earth? Say: Allah.][75] Or who is it that will provide you sustenance if He would withhold His sustenance? The Holy Qur'an attributes the work of creating and sustenance, virtue of the creating and providing, and all others stages of creating to Allah only. As we read in the following verses say: [Allah is the creator of every thing and he is the one, the supreme.][76] [Allah is the creator of every thing and he has charge over every thing.][77] [That is Allah, your Lord, and the Creator of every thing; there is no god but Him.][78] [Know for Him the creation and the command, blessed is Allah, the Lord of the world].][79] [And who created every thing, then ordained for it a measure.][80] [Or have they set up with Allah associates who have created creation like His.][81] [He said: our Lord is He who gave to every thing its creation, then guided it (to its goal).][82] [That is Allah, your Lord, there is no god but He, the Creator of all things, therefore serve Him.][83] [How could He have a son? Whil He has no conSort and He created every thing (Himself).][84] [Surely We have created every thing according to a measure.][85] [He made well every thing that He has created.][86] Qur'an said about creating the heavens and the earth as follows: [All praise is due to Allah, who created the heavens and the earth are sat the darkness and the light.][87] [And He is who has created the heavens and the earth with the truth.][88] [Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six periods of time.][89] [And He is who has created the heavens and the earth in the six periods of time.][90] [Do you not see that Allah created the heavens and the earth with the truth?][91] He created the heavens and the earth with the truth, highly be he exalted above what they associate (with Him). Creating Adam (peace be upon him) is an argument of issuing various things by the origin (Allah the Almighty)

One of the documents of issuing various things by Allah the Almighty is the creating of Adam that Allah has created him by Himself without any mediation, though his creation was after creation of angels. As that exam in the Holy Qur'an: [So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him.] [92] [Surely the likeness of Isa with Allah is as the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then said to him, be and he is (comes into existence).][93] It is a clear verse that says, being existence of Adam is only by the saying of Allah �be� without any cause. Some Traditions about the blasphemy in the belief of handing over the creation Uyun Al Akhbar, Vol.2, page-203: Abu Hashem Ja'afary states: I asked to Imam Reza (peace be upon him) about Ghollat and Mufawez (who belief to handing over abdication). Imam Reza said: "Ghollats are infidels and Mufawez are Mushrek (polytheists). And whoever stays with them or walks with them or eats with them or drinks or communicates with them or gives them daughter for marry, or takes daughter or takes, or attests their words, or helps them has come out from the sovereignty of Allah, His prophet and we the Ahlul Bait." Al Etequadat (author: sadooque), page-100, has stated from Jurairah: He asked to Imam Sadique (peace be upon him): One of the son of Abdullah Ibn Saba believes to Tafwiz. He asked: What is Tafwiz? I said: As if Allah has created Mohammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) and Ali (peace be upon him) and rest of the creation are handed over them too, so they provide sustenance, kill and revive. Imam said: He (Allah�s enemy) has told a lie. When you returned to him recite His verse: [Or have they set with Allah associates who have created creation like his, so that what is created becomes confused to them? Say: Allah is the creator of all thing, and he is the one the supreme.][94] Jurairah said: I returned to him and gave him this news. He could not reply anything as he has turned into dumb. Ayun Al Akhbar, Vol.1, page-126: Boraid Ibn Umair shamy stated: In the Marve I reached to Imam Reza (peace be upon him) then said, what is the meaning of the Tradition from Imam Sadique (peace be upon him) no Jabr (fatalism) and no Tafwiz but it is between them. He replied: Whoever believes Allah issues our works and he will punish for them. They have believed in Jabr and whoever believes in Allah has handed over the creating and the providing of sustenance to the Proof of God they have believed to Tafwiz. Believer of Jabr is infidel and believer of Tafwiz is Mushrek (polytheist). Risal e Kassi, page-222: Ibn Abi Umair has stated from some companion that I said to Imam Sadique (peace be upon him): Abu Harun Makful think that you said to him, if you want the eternal old none can not perceives him, and if you want that who creates and provides sustenance is Mohammad and Ali (a) Imam replied: I swear by God, he has told a lie, Allah curse upon him. Then said: There is no creator except Allah. It is right to Allah that He may be cause us to taste the death, which does not die is only the Creator of creatures and Bringer of creatures to their existences. In that book page-323, stated from Abdullah Ibn Maskan that he said, Hazer Ibn Jaad and Amer Ibn Zajae had reached to Imam Sadique (peace be upon him), and they said: Mafzal Ibn Umair says; you provide the peoples sustenance, replied: I swear by Allah, nobody provides our sustenance except Allah: I had to need supplying food for my family, my chest turned into sick for thinking that, so that I could collect them, after then I fell free, Allah has cursed upon him and he is weary to him said: do you curse upon him and do you grow weary to him? Said: yes, you also curse upon him and grow weary to him; Allah and his prophet are also weary to him. Ayun Al Akhbar, Vol. 2, page-202; stated from (Imam�s) servant Yaser, I said to Imam Sadique (peace be upon him) that what you say about Tafwiz? Imam replied: Allah the Almighty has handed over His religion to His prophet and has said: [Take that which brings the prophet and which is prohibited by him avoid that.][95] But the creations and the sustenance have not handed over to them. Allah the Almighty says: [Allah is the Creator of every thing.] [Allah is the One Who created you and provided you sustenance, and then He causes you to die, and then bring you to life. Is there any one of your associate gods that able to do these? Allah is the absolute and pure from those that he has above any partner that they attribute to him.][96] Al Etequadat, page-99: Imam Reza (peace be upon him) stated in his prayer: O� Lord! I am weary of power and strength; there is no power and strength except you. O� Lord! I want acquaintance from them who say about us but we do not say ourselves. O� Lord! The creation is only for You and sustenance is only from You, we pray You only and we beg help only to You. O� Lord! You are the Creator of our fathers from the beginning to and, O� Lord! There is nO� Lordship except You. And there is no possibility of Godhood except for You. Curse upon the Christians who made short Your glorious and also curse upon them who did like them. O� Lord! We are slaves and child of Your slaves, we are not owner for our goodness and badness, neither for die nor for life and nor for resurrection after death. O� Lord! Every who thinks us lords, we are weary to them and also weary to them who think that, creating returns to us and sustenance is in our hands as Isa (peace be upon him) was weary for that. O� Lord! Do not take us to task that they say, pardon us which they demand upon us, don�t put any sign from them in the earth, if You give them liberty they will mislead Your slaves and they do not born any child except lewd and infidel. The book Al Ghaibat, sheikh Tusy, page 178, stated from Abu Ja'afar Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babveh or Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Ahmad Qomy that said the group of Shiite opinion, that Allah the Almighty handed over the creating and the sustenance power to Imams (peace be upon them) or not, they disputed for that. Some of them said: It is impossible, because none can create bodies except Allah; and some of them said: Allah has created Imams and handed over the abdication and creation to them that they create and provide sustenance. A believer said by this purpose, why do you not ask to Mohammad Ibn Osman Amr the special representative of Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten his reappearance) in the short occultation that he would asked to him so that it will be cleaned. They agreed with this opinion, after this he (Osman Amr) went to Imam and write to him about that and sent to him, and then Imam replied in a paper by his signature and sent his subscription, that is as follow: He is Allah Who has created the bodies and has distributed the sustenance, because He is not Jesm (body) and hasn't entered into a body, there is nothing just like Him and He is the hearer and the wise one, but Imam (peace be upon them) wants to Allah and He creats, and wants to Him and He gives the sustenance on behalf of their apply and greatness.

Some of Interpretation that may be caused to misconception about Tafwiz 1-It has come in the Ziarat-e-Jamea: (Bikum Fatahallahu Wa Bikum Yakhtim Wa Bikum Yanzilul Ghaith Wa Bikum Yamsikus samaa An Taquaa Alal Ardh Illa Bi Iznihi.) Narrator of this Ziarat, Musa Ibn Abdullah is a perSon who is unknown and not identified his conSolidation in the biography and criticism of Traditions, but it is a famous Ziarat and has a high position in the Islam. Though it is not confirmed in the beliefs because of that the documentary confirmation is needed. The meaning of the selected parts of the Ziarat: In the Bihar Al Anwar, Vol. 99, and page 163 stated: (Allah has began with you), it means in the existence or in the sovereignty of the Messenger of God) all goodness. The letter (Baa) in (Bikum) may be the relative clause or causality. (Bikum YaKhtim) means: (He finished to you) it means, your sovereignty is last. (Illa Bi Iznihi) means: But by Allah�s permission in the starting time of the Judgment Day. If the letter (Baa) means causality it means: On behalf of you He descends rain and on behalf of you He holds the sky, so that it does not fall down. It means, on behalf of you He sends mercy and on behalf of you protects the affliction and calamity, because descending rain is descending mercy and holding sky is protecting affliction by which people of the world will die. In the Rawzatul Muttaquin, Vol.5, page-45, in the explanation of the Ziarat states on behalf of you He descends rain, or because they (Imams) are the real cause have all Divine mercy. Just as came in many Traditions, on behalf of you He holds the sky from fall down to the earth. As with there are so many causes for falling down, and that pretension (claim) of son for Allah and pretension of gods is wrong and false, which has claimed by the people of the world that is caused for descending calamity, falling sky and destroying the earth, just as the Holy Qur�an says: [The heavens may almost be rent thereat and the earth leave asunder, and the mountains fall down in pieces. Those who describes a son for Allah the beneficent, it means: Allah the Exalted and the Almighty on behalf of those great perSons who are the ancient, Holy and infallible, protects the great calamity, fall down the sky and destroying the earth.][97] 2- One of the Ziarat of saeed Al shulada Imam Hosain (peace be upon him) that is narrated in Kafi Vol.6, page 576: (Bikum Youbayyinullahul Kizba Wa Bikum�Min Ahkamil Ibad.) In the Miratul Oquool, the explanation of Kafi, Vol.18, page-197 that interferes with this Ziarat says this Tradition is weak in its document. The meaning of the selected parts of the Ziarat In the Rawzatul Muttaquin, the explanation of Man La Yahzuruhul Faquih, Vol.5, page 630 says: (Bikum Fatahallah) means: He (Allah) has started by you because the first Imam of them is Ali (peace be upon him). (Bikum YaKhtimullah) means: He (Allah) will finish (the sovereignty) by Mahdi's (may Allah hasten his reappearance) reappearance and revolution, or these two sentences means are that: Allah has created you at first before all of us, and after all of us he will kill you. Just as came in the Tradition: He will put them alive yet the people can't bring the document that there was no Divine proof from God in a period of time. (Bikum Yamhullahu Maa Yashaa Wa Bikum Yasbot) Means: He warns abolition, which you pray and apply, and proves that which you want. (Bikum Yafukkuz Zulla Min Riquabina) means: He will open the disgrace from our neck by the reappearance of Mahdi (may Allah hasten his reappearance) and you. In the "Meratul Oquool", Vol.18, and page 301 and in the "Bihar Al Anwar", Vol.98, page 155, in the meaning of this part of that Ziarat says: (Bikum Fatahallah) means: Allah has started the creation or the teaching or the sovereignty or the Imamate. By you, for example the saying of prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants): I was prophet when Adam was unit the water and mud. And (Iradaturrab Tahbitu Ilaikum Wa Tasduru Min Bainikum) means: The Divine decrees come in the grand night upon you, and people learnt those by you. 3- In the "Amaly sheikh Tusy", Vol.1, page 157; narrates from Mohammad Ibn Musanna that Imam Sadique (peace be upon him) said: (Nahnus sababu Bainakum Wa Bainallahi Azza Wa Jalla), we are the link between you and the Almighty God. This Tradition is not acceptable, because in the documents of Hadith narrator Mohammad Ibn Omar Jaaby, Ja'afar Ibn Mohammad Ibn Ubaid and Mohammad Ibn Musanna aren't conSolidated; and like this Hasan Ibn Mohammad and his father aren't identified also.

Meaning of the Tradition: The meaning of the Tradition as past in the part of Ziarat-e-Jamea is that the mercies are descending to you and the whole people on behalf of us. 4- In the letter 29 of Nahjul Balaghah Ali (peace be upon him) wrote to Muawiah: �We are taught by God and the people are taught by us.� In the "LIsan Al Arab", Vol.8, page 212 says: It is said "A certain perSon praised to such a perSon and he is praises when he knows him, teach him polity and trained him. So the meaning of the saying of that to honorable perSon is "Eliquated people and their teaching are by us. It that saying doesn't mean like this, he did not write to Muawiah that he could use it for himself beneficently, but then he wrote to his friends. Seed, after then from clot and then from lump of flesh; creating jinn from fire and creating all living creature from water do not mean that they are creators of men, jinn and living creatures; or they are interdictors between them and lord the exalted in the creating. Like this the meaning of creating somethings from some other things by Traditions also means same as up. Traditions by the purpose of creating prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) in Bihar Vol.15, page11-26; and by the purpose of creating the infallible Imam in Usool-e-Kafi Vol.1 page 319 have narrated. 5- In the sermon of Al Ghadeer, Ali (peace be upon him) said (as narrated in Misabh of sheikh): I crtify that Allah has put Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) in His own post for performing the prophetic mission Divine religion to people, because reaching the news is same as the post of reacher, the Holy Quran says: [Muhammad is nothing but the Messenger.] By this purpose He put him in His own post that no one can see Him, and no one approach to Him. In the Bihar Al Anwar, Vol.25, P.348, says: Which has arrived in the doubt of "Tafwiz"for example describing sermon and like that has not found in the books except the book of Ghollat and like them. Inspite of the fact that it may the meaning that Imam (peace be upon him) was the cause of creating of the worldwide nature that Allah has created the nature for them, and put them obeyed on the heavens and the earth, and by the solid bodies also obey them, and when they want anything Allah doesn't reject that, but they don�t want anything except which Allah wants. But some meanings like these are entered in the Traditions: The angles and Rooh are sent down to them for every purpose, no angle sent down except at first for them. It means is not that they have intervention to the universal principles and deliberation with them. Creationg affairs are only for Allah and those are for their honour, respect and expressing their dignity and high position. 6- In some of the Traditions (in the part of creating the world) has come that some of creations have created from some other creations. Before proposing that news we will remind that we see by our own eyes, Allah has created somethings from some other things.

In the Holy Qur'an says: [When your Lord said to the angles; surely, I am goimg to creat a mortal from dust.][98] [Then surely, We create you from dust, then from a small seed, then from a lump of flash.][99] [And Allah has created from water every living creature.][100] [And He created the Jinn from a flame of fire.][101] Evidently it is clear that the meaning of "crating man from dust, after then from seed, after clot mand then from lump of flash, creating Jinn from fire and creating all living creature from water" do not mean that "they are created of man, Jinn and living creatures; or they are intermediators between them and Almighty Lord in the creating. Like this the meaning of creating somethings from some other things by Traditions is also mean same as above. Traditions by the purpose of creating prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) in Bihar Al Anwar, Vol. 15, and page 11-26; and by the purpose of creating the infallible Imams in Usool Al Kafi, Volk.1, page 319 have narrated same as above. Positive attributes and negative attributes of Allah the Almighty As it is clear in past analyses: necessary existent (Necessary Existent) is just existent and pure existent, and returning any perfection is to its existence, just like that returning every imperfect into its non existence. So necessary existent through subsistent is full of all perfect attributes; and every perfect of existent in another thing is its creature; and he has give that to him, the gives is not disqualified of that. Negative attributes of Allah are also return to take away his imperfections and non-existences. Those are to take away his non-existence, to lake away his imperfection and there is no way to him any non-existence. Which are mentioned in the book of philoSophy and theology about the positive attributes of Allah the Almighty are the following eight attributes: 1-The power, 2-The knowleged, 3- The life, 4- The wish, 5- The perception, 6- The eternal and the everlasting, 7- The speaking, 8- The truth. About the negative attributes are the following seven attributes: 1- The composition, 2- The materiality, 3- The place for being creation, 6- To seeing, 5- Having partner, 6- Extra attributes over essence, 7- Necessity for others. Just as we indicated, that every perfect attributes are still over Divine essence and every negative attributes are ceased to his exist. So many attributes have come in the Holy Qur'an for the creator that most of them are active attributes and return to acts of the creator. Names and attributes of Allah in the Holy Qur'an 1- Al Awwl (the First) 2-Al AKher (the Last) 3- Al Zaher (the Open) 6- Al Baten (the Hidden) 5- Al Wahid (the One) 6- Al Ahad 7- Al samad 8- Al Latif 9- Al samea (the Hearer) 10- Al Alim 11- Al Basir (the Observer) 12- Al Khabir (the aware) 13- Al Quawi (the Power) 16- Al Quaher 17- Al Muhit 18- Al Hayy (the Alive) 19- Al Quaium 20- Al Ali 21- Al Azim 22- Al Mutaal 23- Al Quarib 26- Al Hakeem 27- Al Kabir 26 Al Ghani 27- Al Hamid 28- Al Raquib 29- Al Kareem 30- Al shaheed 31- Al Quddus 32- Al Salam 33- Al Muamin 36- Al Muhaimin 37- Al Ghaffar 38 Al Khalique (the Creator) 37- Al Bari 38- Al Musawwir 39-Al Malik 40- Al Haqque 41- Al Birr 42- Al Khallaque 43- Al Razzaque 44- Zul quowwah 45- Al Mateen 46 Wasiul Maghfirah 47- Al Rahman 48- Al Rahim 49- Al RAwf 50- Al Tawwab 51- Al Fattah 52- Al Quahhar 53- Al Afuw 56- Al Ghafur 55- Al Halim 56- Al Khabeer 57- Al Waly 58- Al Hadi 59- Al Hafiz 60- Al Quareeb 61- Al Majeed 62- Al Wadood 63- Al Wahhab 64- Al Wakeel 65- Al Wasee 66- Zul Tawl shakoor 74- Al Muqutadar 75- Al Waris 76- Rabbun Naas 77- Malekun Naas 78- Elahin Naas 79- Al Jabbar 80- Al Mutakabbir 81- Al Akram 82- Al Mola 83- Al Kafi 86- Rabbul Aalameen 85- Arhamur Raahimeen 86- Malik Yawmiddeen 87- Badius samawat Wal Arz 88- Allamal Ghoyoob 89- Fatirus samawat Wal Arz 90- Allamul Ghaib Wal shahadat 91- Rabbul Fulk 92- Khaliqu Al Habb Wannawa 93- Khalequl Asbaah 96- Al Muhyi Al Mowta 95- Rabbul samawat Al saii Wal Rabbal Arshil Azim 96- Nurus samaa Wal Arz 97- Ahkamul Hakeemeen 98- Malikul Mulk 99- Rabbul Izzah 100- Zur Rahmam 101- Zun Tiquam 102- Ghafiruz Zonoob 103- Qabelut Tawb 104- Rafia Al Darajat 105- Zul Fazlul Azeem 106- Asraul Hasibeen 107- Khairul Hakeemeen 108- Khairul Fatiheen 109- Khairul Fasileen 110- Khairur Raaziqueen 111- Khairul Maakireen 1112- Khairun Naasireen 113- Khairul Ghafireen 116- Wali Al Mumineen 115- shadidul Mohaal 116- shadidul Iquaab 117- sariul Hisab 118- sariul Iquab 119- Zur Rahman 120- Zul Maghfirat Wa Zu Iqaabul Alim. Sheikh sadooque (in his book Al Tawheed, page 196 and Al KhIsal, Vol.2, page 593 has stated by his own document from Imam Sadique (peace be upon him) from his father, grand father and------from Rasul Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) that he said: There are ninety mine attributes and names for Allah the Exalted, whoever recites them will enter into the heaven and then he has mentioned them in details. Names and attributes that have come in this Tradition, some of those attributes have come in the Holy Qur'an, and some of others though haven�t come in the Holy Qur'an clearly but for every one there is witness in Qur'an also� they are as following: 1- For Al saanea: surah Nahl, verse 88. 2- For Al Quadeem: surah Al Hadeed, verse 3. 3- For Al Baaquee: surah Taha, verse 73. 4- For Al Fard: surah Al Tawheed, verse 1. 5- For Al Watr: surah Al Tawheed, verse 1. 6- For Al Jaleel: surah Al Rahman, verse 78. 7- For Al sabbah: surah Al Rahman, verse 159. 8- For Al Adl: surah Anaam, verse 115. 9- For Al Tahir: surah Hashr, verse 23. 10- For Al Quareeb: surah Mulk, verse 16. 11- For Al Zaari: surah Mulk, verse26. 12- For Al Mannan: surah Ibrahim, verse 11. 13- For Al shafi: surah shura, verse 80, and surah Israa, verse 82. 14- For Al Jawad: surah Al Jumuah, verse 11. 15- For Al Naseer: surah Aal Imran, verse 150. 16- For Al Wafee: surah Al Baquareh, verse 60. 17 And 18-For Al qabiz al basit: Baquareh, verse 235. 19- For Al sayyid: surah Hajj, verse 78. 20- For Al Raaee: surah Alaque, verse 16. 21- For Al Quazial Haajaat: surah Ghafir, verse 60. 22- For Al daiyaan: surah Hamd, verse 3. 23- For Al Baais: surah Anaam, verse 36. 24- For Al Mughees Wal Ghias: surah Anfaal, verse 9. Numerous names in the supplications of infallibles: There are so many names in the supplications of Rasul Akram (peace be upon him and his descendants) and the infallible Imams. In the supplication of Jaushan Kabir that has been narrated from Rasul Akram (peace be upon him and his descendants) the names of Allah the exalted have come. All of them are descriptions of those names that have come in the Holy Qur'an and so they return to the mentioned attributes in the Holy Qur'an. Just some of them return to some of others. And most of them are active names that return to the essential attributes. In the book AWali Al Layali Vol.6, page 106 has narrated from prophet ((peace be upon him) and his discandants) that he stated: Allah the exalted has four thousand names. This Tradition is also narrated in the book Bihar Al Anwar Vol. 6, page 211 from the mentioned book.

JUSTICE OF GOD

God is far above From being

The Almighty God said: [Surely Allah does not do injustice to the weight of an atom.][102] There are so many verses that deem Allah far from above injustice, some of them are: 1- Hood, V.101. 2- An Nahl, V.30. 3- Az ZuKhruf, V.16. 4- Aal Imran, V.117. 5- Quaf, V.2. 6- An Nahl, V.33. 7- Al Baquareh, V.279. 8-Younus, V.44. 9-Al Kahf, V.49. 10- Al Tawbeh, V. 70. 11- Al Ankaboot, V.40. 12- Ar Rum, V.9. 13- Aal Imran, V.117. 14- Al Anbiyaaa, V.47. 15-Yaseen, V.54. 16- An Nisaa, V.77 17- Al Anfal, V.60 18- Al Baquareh, V. 281 19- Aal Imran, V. 25. 20- Aal Imran, V.60 21- An Nisaa', V.49. 22- An Nisaa', V.124. 23- Al Anaam, V. 160 24- Younus, V.47 25- Younus, V.54 26- An Nahl, V. 111. 27- Al Israa', V.71 28- Maryam, V.60 29- Al Muaminoon, V.62 30- Az Zumar, V.69 31- Al Essencehiyah, V.22 32- Al Ahquaf, V.19 33- Aal Imran, V.182 34- Al Anfal, V.51 35- Al Hajj, V. 10 36- Fussilat, V. 40- Quaf, V.29. Deeming Allah far above from being injustice in the hereafter: As Allah said: [Whoever brings a good deed, he shall have ten like it, and whoever brings an evil deed, he shall be recompensed only with the like of it, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.][103] Deeming Allah far above from being injustice in this world: It can be traced by elaborating our speech about misfortunes and calamities. Calamities and misfortunes that befall man in his life and through his life never miss to be one of the following: 1. Calamities and misfortunes that are brought about by man himself, such as addictions to drugs, telling lies, treason and other disobediences that lives a verbal impression on their makers in their worldly mundane lives. Here the only one who is unjust is man himself who commits these sins. Allah said: [And we did them no injustice but they were unjust to themselves.][104] Allah also said: [Allah was not unjust to them, but they were unjust to themselves.][105] Allah said: [And it did not beseem Allah that He should be unjust to them, but they were unjust to their own souls.][106] Allah also said: [Surely Allah does not do any injustice to men, but men are unjust to themselves.][107] 2. Calamities and misfortunes that befall man due to the injustice of the oppressors and those who transgress on man's soul, property, honor, family, children, Allah by His justice will be the judge among them. Allah said: [And we shall set up a just balance on the day of Resurrection, so no soul shall be dealt with unjustly in the least, and though there be the weight of a grain of mustard seed, yet shall we bring it, and sufficient are we to take account.][108] 1. Misfortunes that The Almighty God befalls man with to draw his attention to a certain point; it is after all a grace from Allah. The sublime said: [And certainly we sent (apostles) to nation before you, then we seized them with distress and affection in order that they might humble themselves.][109] 4. Calamities and misfortunes that befall man as an examination from Allah, so He will reward the people for their endurance. The sublime said: [And we shall most certainly try you with somewhat of the fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits; and give good news to the patient, who when a misfortune befalls them, say: surely we are Allah's and to him we shall surely return. Those are they on who are blessings and mercy from their lord, and those are the followers of the right course.][110] 5. Calamities and misfortunes that befall man as a punishment from The Almighty God for man's misdeeds. The Almighty God said: [And whatever affliction befalls you it is on account of what your hands have wrought, and (get) He pardons most of you faults.][111] This is another grace of Allah, as He said: [He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, so that they may return.][112] Falseness of Determinism and Entrasting (Deligatilon of Authority): Al Ashairah of Sunnite believed in determinism, Al Muatazilah of Sunnite also believed in free choice. Shiites believed in (a case between two doctrines) which quoted from the infallible Imams (A.S). At the beginning we shall survey Qur'anic verses that invalidate both doctrines, thereafter we shall quote the progeny's evidences that invalidate both doctrines and affirm the principle of (a case between two doctrines). Verses That Repudiate Determinism: It has several categories:

The first category: Verses, which attribute good and evil deeds to man himself, as Allah said: [Whoever goes aright, for his own soul does he go aright, and whoever goes astray, to its detriment only does he go astray.][113] He said: [Say if I err, I err only against my own soul.][114] And so many other verses that confirm the same meaning.

The second category: Verses that deem The Almighty God far above injustice as Allah says: [surely Allah does not do injustice to the weight of an atom.][115] Verses, which refer to this meaning, exceed forty as we have already stated. The third category: Verses, which signify that The Almighty God examines the people; do they choose faith and obedience? Or, do they choose disbelieve and disobedience. As He said: [Who created depth and life that He may try you which of you is best in deeds?][116] There are sixty-seven verses that connote this meaning: (2) Al Anfal, V.17 (3) Aal Imran, V.186 (4) An Naml, V.40 (5) Al Maidah, V.94 (6) An Nahl, V.94 (7) Hud, V.7. (8) Al Anaam, V.165 (9) Al Maidah, V.48 (10) Muhammad, V.4 (11) Al Kahf, V.7 (12) Al Baquareh, V.155 (13) Al Anbiyaaa, V.35 (14) Muhammad, V. 31 (15) Al Qualam, V.17 (16) Al Araf, V.168 (17) Aal Imran, V.166 (18) Aal Imran, V.142 (19) Aal Imran, V.140 (20) sabaa, V.21 (21) Al Baquareh, V.143 (22) Al Fajr, V.15 (23) Al Baquareh, V.124 (24) Al Hujurat, V.3 (25) Al Maidah, V.94 (26) Aal Imran, V.167 (27) Aal Imran, V. 154 (28) Aal Imran, V.152 (29) Al Ahzab, V.11 (30) Al Baquareh, V.49 (31) Al Araf, V.7 (32) Ibrahim, V.16 (33) As saffat, V.106 (34) Ad DuKhan, V.33 (35) Al Baquareh, V.249 (36) Al Muaminoon, V.30 (37) Al Anaam, V.53 (38) Taha, V.58 (39)Al AnkAbout, V.3 (40) saad, V.34 (41) Ad DuKhan, V.17 (42) Taha, V.40 (43) saad, V.24 (44) Al Hadeed, V.14 (45) Taha, V.131 (46) Al Jinn, V.17 (47) Taha V.90 (48) An Naml, V.47 (49) An Nahl, V.110 (50) At Tawbah, V.126 (51) Al AnkAbout, V.2 (52) Al Baquareh, V. 102 (53) Al Anfal, V.28 (54) Younus, V.58 (55) Al Israa, V.60 (56) Al Anbiyaaa, V.35 (57) Al Anbiyaaa, V.111 (58) Al Hajj, V.53 (59) Al Furquan, V.20 (60) As saffat, V.63 (61) Az Zumar, V.49 (62) Al Quamar, V.27 (63) Al Mumtahinah, V.5 (64) At Taghabon, V.15 (65) Al Muddassir, V.31 (66) Al Araf, V.155 (67) Al Fajr, V.16.

The fourth category: Verses, which connote that Allah anticipates man to show conversation, faith, caution, piety and to offer prayer; for The Almighty God likes to see these attributes in his servants. Allah said: [So that they should believe in the meeting of their lord][117] Allah also said: [That you may warn a people to whom no Warner has come before you, that they may follow the right direction.][118] Allah also said: [And that they may warn their people when they come back to them that they may be cautious][119] Allah also said: [Then we seized them with distress and affliction in order that they might humble themselves.][120] Allah said: [Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).][121]

The fifth category: Verses that confirm man's deeds are responsible for the reward and punishment, which befall him. Allah said: [Then every soul shall be paid back in full what it has earned and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.][122] Allah said: [Every soul may be rewarded for what it has earned and they shall not be wrongEdn.][123] Allah also said: [Every soul is held in pledge for what it earns.][124] He said: [And whoever commits a sin, he only commits it against his own soul.][125] He also said: [Thus it is that their recompense is hell, because they disbelieved and held my communications and my apostles in Mockery.][126] Allah said: [And their abode is hell; and evil is the reSort.][127] He also said: [But as to those who are careful of (their duty to) their lord, they shall have gardens beneath which rivers flow.][128] Allah also said: [Their reward with their lord is gardens of perpetuity beneath which rivers flow.][129] There are many other verses that pertainto this topic. The sixth category: Verse that reproach and blame atheists and non-believers. Reproaching and blaming somebody for a certain deed does not fit unless he had freedom of choice to do something. The Almighty God said: [How do you deny Allah and you were dead and He gave you life?][130] He also said: [But how can you disbelieve while it is you to whom the communications of Allah are recited, and among you is His apostle?][131] He also said: [How, then. will you guard yourselves, if you disbelieve, on the day which shall make children grey-headed?][132] Allah said: [why do you disbelieve in the communications of Allah? And Allah is a witness of what you do.][133] He said: [Will they still believes in the falsehood and disbelieve in the favor of Allah.][134] He said: [Were not my communications recited to you? But you used to reject them.][135]

The seventh category: Verses frankly disclosing that believe or disbelieve obedience and disobedience are due to man� He said: [And Musa said: If you are ungrateful, you and those on earth all together, most surely Allah is self-sufficient, praisEdn.][136] Allah said: [And whoever disbelieves in the communications of Allah then surely Allah is quick in reckoning.][137] Allah said: [Shall we treat those who believe and do well like the mischief-makers in the earth?][138] He said: [And he who obeys Allah and His Messenger, and fears Allah, and is careful of? (His duty to) Him, these it is, that are the achievers][139] He said: [This was because they disobeyed and used to exceed the limit.][140] We have surveyed these verses just as examples, otherwise there are countless other verses confirming that deeds are man's product. The Eighth category: Verses signifying that people possess their free choice to believe or disbelieve, obey and disobey, as Allah said: [So let him who pleases believe, and let him who pleases disbelieve.][141] The Ninth Category: Verses that urge man to do well as the Almighty God said [And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord.][142] The tenth category: Verses that urge man to beseech The Almighty God for help like [thee do we beseech for help.][143] This shows that the servant himself is responsible of his deeds and The Almighty God supports him to do good deeds. The eleventh category: Verses exposing those prophets ask forgiveness, as Allah said: [They said: our Lord: We have been unjust to ourselves, and if thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers.][144] The twelfth category: Verses which show that disbelievers on the Day of Judgment admit that they themselves have committed wrong doings and misdeeds, as Allah said: [They shall say: we were not of those who prayed, and we used not to feed the poor and we used to enter into vain discourse with those who entered into vain discourses.] [145] The thirteenth category: Verses that exposes disbeliever�s request on the Day of Judgment to return to this world so they will be able to do well, as Allah said: [send me back, my Lord, send me bake so that so that I am spend in charity from that which I left benind.][146] Verses that deny Entrasting (Deligatilon of Authority):

These verses are divided into following categories: The verses which attribute the formative conversion to Allah, they are seventy-eight verse as given below: (1) Al Baquareh V.143 (2)Al BaquarehV.213(3)Al Anaam V.90 (4) Al Baquraah V.30 (5) Ar Rad V.31 (6) An Nahl V.36 (7) Taha V.122 (8) Al Ala V.3 (9) Ad Dhuha V.7 (10) Al Annam V.149 (11) An Nahl V.121 (12) Al Araf V.43 (13) Az Zumar V.8 (14) An Nahl V.121 (15) Az Zumar V.18 (16) Aal Imran V.8 (17) Al Anaam V.94 (18) Al Anaam V.88 (19) Maryam V.58 (20) Al Araf V.69 (21) Al Qusass V.50 (22) Al shura V. 52 (23) Al AnkAbout V.69 (24) Al Araf V.178 (25) Al Israa V.97 (26) Al Kahf V.17 (27) Az Zumar V.37 (28) At Taghabun V.11 (29) Al Anaam V.77 (30) Al Baquareh V.26 (31) Al Baquareh V.142 (32) Al Bquarah V. 258 (33) Al Baquareh V.264 (34) Al Baquareh V.272 (35) Al Imran V.86 (36) Al Maideh V.16 (37) Al Maideh V.51 (38) Al Maideh V.67 (39) Al Maideh V.108 (40) Ha Anaam V.88 (41) Al Anaam V.144 (42) Al Tawbeh V.19 (43) Al Tawbeh V.24 (44) Al Tawbeh V.38 (45) T Tawbeh V.80 (46) Al Tawbeh V.109 (47) Younus V.37 (48) Younus V.52 (49) Ar Raad V.27 (50) Ibrahim V.6 (51) An Nahl V.37 (52) An Nahl V.93 (53) An Nahl V.107 (54) Al Hajj V.16 (55) An Noor V.56 (56) An Noor V.8 (57) Al Quassass V.50 (58) Al Quassass V.57 (59) Fater V.8 (60) Az Zumar V.3 (61) Az Zumar V.23 (62) Ghafer V.28 (63) Al shura V.13 (64) Al Ahquaf V.10 (65) As saff V.5 (66) As saff V.5 (67) Al JUmmuah V.5 (68) Al Munafiquon V.6(69) Al Muddassir V.126 (70) Al Fath V.02 (71) Al Kahf V.24 (72) Al Anaam V.126 (73) An Nissa V.137 (74) An Nissa V.168 (75) An Nahl V.104 (76) Al Hajj V. 54 (77) Al Anaam V.35 (78)As sijdeh V.13. All these verses show that conversion is the Almighty God�s donation, yet there are other verses, which show that man�s free choice decides his conversion. As the sublime said: [Se let him who pleases believe, and let him who pleases disbelieve.][147] He also said: [Whoever disbelieves, he shall be responsible for his disbelief, and whoever does well, and they prepare (good) for their own souls.][148] When we say that conversion is a gift from Allah we mean: The Almighty God has given man the ability to realize he made him surrounded with signs of conversion and proofs of knowledge, and protected him from human and heavenly satan�s temptations, leading him to conversion, or else Allah�s servant will get into the abyss of disbelieve and disobedience hence man�s good deeds are due to Allah rather than to himself. Man�s misdeeds and wrongdoings are the result of the wrong choice he has made and despite Satan�s lure and continuous temptation, he continues to maintain has free choice, for The Almighty God has given hem the ability to believe or disbelieve so as to realize and distinguish things exposing signs of conversion and evidences of monotheism to have observation. Man�s delusion never comes from Allah al though The Almighty God maintains an ultimate overwhelming authority and power over people and if he will he can covert all of them (obliging them to follow ass of conversion whether they like it or not. But The Almighty God made as of conversion easy for his servant giving him access to it and making him free to choose conversion or delusion; Allah does man a favor way whether man chooses to be converted or deluded, hereunder is an example to bring the meaning closer: Somebody gave a beggar some money to help him buy some bread, suppose the bought poison, ate it and got killed by it, nobody is going to blame the donator for what he has done, he had actually done the beggar a favor by giving him the money. Other verses deny any power and potency other than Allah�s (Exalted by His supremacy as sublime said: [There is no power save in Allah.][149] This notion does not contradict man�s free choice and potentiality to act; for man � if compared to God�s potency � is weak and power lees, he neither con do himself good nor bad, but if we consider man�s power as a donation from Allah, and his potency as a demonstration of the sublime�s potency, this facial contradiction between the concept of man�s potentiality and the significance of the verse: [There is no power save in Allah,] will be removed. Some Qur'anic verses confirm that man has the ability to act, as as the sublime refers: [So get him who pleases believe, and let him who pleases disbelieve.][150] [Who ever disbelieves, he shall be responsible for his dies be life, and who ever does good, they prepare, (good) for their own souls.][151] [And who ever is grateful, he is grateful only for his own soul, and who ever is ungrateful, they surely, they surely my Lord is self sufficient, HonorEdn.][152] [Some verses indicate that benefit or harm for my own soul except as Allah pleases.][153] Regarding the following verses: The sublime said: [So let him who pleases believe, and let him who pleases disbelieves.][154] [And who ever do this; he indeed is unjust to his own soul.][155] [And if Allah had pleased, they would not have done it.][156] The verse stated above declare that: Man is given the ability to act, he believes it he wishes, but it The Almighty God means to prevent man from acting, man will not be able to do whatever he likes. This is one of the dimensions of the doctrine (a case between the two concerns).

 

Evidences to the doctrine (a case between two concerns) The previous two categories of gracious verses whatever various they are affirm that man�s deed meets two probabilities: First; they are attributed to man, for he has acted according to his own will and choice, which the previous verses clearly reveal. The Qur'an is full of verses that attribue the deeds to the people themselves. Second: these deeds are attributed to The Almighty God Exalted: so many verses signify that conversion or delusion is attributed to The Almighty God. How do they pertainto that theme as what the Holy verses state under one of three categories? First: The existence of man and whatever action he does is in fact a product of the sublime Exalted. Allah has given man the ability to do good or evil deeds, subsequently to get to a degree that cloud only be attained by free choice, so� if man does something, he will be the case for this effect, The Almighty God is the cause for the formation of man�s soul, body (i.e devices) and free choice, Allah is the final (in direct) cause to formulate action. Second: The inventors� potency (exalted be his glory) pertains to people�s deeds, if he wishes he could black their choice compelling them to take other options. The Almighty God said: [And if He pleases He would certainly guide you all aright][157] Allah the Almighty makes life and man in order to try him, He said: [Who created death and life that He may try you which of you is best in deeds?][158] Allah does not alter people�s choice up to their will and wish; He said: [Him who pleases believe and let him who pleases disbelieve.][159] This point in brief: the people�s deeds pertainto The Almighty God in as that he does not object to or prevent them from what they in ted to do. Third:

 

The psychological desires and the instincts that instigate them to make man miss his way of conversion and get lost and deluded; all of them are form the Almighty God. Allah has given man freedom to choose good or bad deeds just to try and examine him during this life. Those instincts - which are part of the cause � are given to man by Allah � hence somebody might suggest that delusion indirectly comes from The Almighty God; despite the fact that man commits a misdeed by his own will and choice. There is a Qur'anic evidence which proves that delusion does take place for a certain cause but that does not connote that such a cause in tederly causes the effect (delusion), Allah has quoted from His prophet Ibrahim: [My Lord! Surely they have led many men astray.][160] The people here willingly got deluded, the idols were nothing more than senseless trunks of wood, and man can never be deluded by their will! The conclusion for this discussion: Perfect cause � are made by the Almighty God. Allah�s verse: [And you did not smite whim you smote (the enemy), but it was Allah who smote.][161] Certifies the doctrine of (a case in between concerns), for this verse attributes smiting to man to man himself (when you smote) at the some time it signifies that man is not the full does [and you did not smite]. This verse concludes the theory of (a case between the two concerns). Extracts from speeches of the infallible Imams (A.S), which reject the determinism and free choice and confirming the theory of (a case between the two concerns): Al Hosain Bin Muhammad narrates from Muala Bin Muhammad who reports from Bin Ali Alwashaa Relating from Abi Al Hasan Ar Redha (A.S) said: �I asked him (A.S); �Did he oblige them to eommit wrongdoings?� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �Allah is just and fair enough not to do so?� then he (peace be upon him) said: Allah said: o son of Adam! Your good deeds are due to me, and your bad deeds are due to you, you have committed disobediences and wrongdoing by the power and potency I have implemented in you�[162]Muhammad Bin Yahya narrates from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Al Hasan Zalan who relates from Abi Talib Al Qummi reporting from another man who related from Abi Abdullah (peace be upon him), he said: �I said to him (peace be upon him): did Allah oblige the people to commit disobediences and wrongdoings?� He said: �No.� The man said: �Did He authorize them to act?� He (peace be upon him) said: �No.� The man said: �what then?� He (peace be upon him) said: �A grace from God between this and that.�

Ali Bin Anaheim narrates from Muhammad Bin Essa who narrates from yanks Bin Abdul Rah man Relating from so many people, all of them narrating form Abi Ja'afar and Abi Abdullah (peace be upon him) both said: �Allah is too merciful to compel the people commit sins and later on to torment them for these sins; at the same time He is too dignified and great to require something that never comes to be.� Then, they (peace be upon him) were asked: �Is there a position in between determinism and free choice?� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said:"yes, a position more wide than the space between heaven and earth�? Ali Bin Ibrahim narrates from Muhammad Bin Isa Relating from Younus Bin Abdul Rahman Relating from sahl Bin sahl, from some friends of his narrates from Abi Abdullah (A.S) said: (Neither determinism nor fate, rather a position in between; this poison embraces righteousness which only a scholar or somebody whom a scholar had taught knows. Ali Bin Abrahiem narrated from Muhammad reporting from Addel Relating from Abi Abdullah A.S: He said a man asked him (peace be upon him): May I be sacrificed for you did Allah compel people to commit wrongdoings ad misdeeds? He (peace be upon him) said: Allah is fair and just enough not to compel them to commit disobediences thereafter to torment them for these sins. The man said: "May I sacrifgced upon youk, did Allah authorize people to do every thing then?" He (peace be upon him) said:" if he had authorized them to do every thing, He would not have restricted them to His commands and prohigitions." The man said: "May I be sacrificed for you, is there a position in between them then?" He (A.S) said: "Yes, wider than the space between heaven and earth.� Muhammad Bin Abi Abdallah narrates from Hosain Bin Muhammad Relating from Muhammad Bin Yahya reporting from somebody who quotes from Abi Abdollah (peace be upon him): "neither Determinism, nor free thoice, rather a case between the two concerns." The man said: "what is a case between the two concerns?" He (peace be upon him) said: "this is similar to somebody whom you witnessed committing a sin, you tried to tried to deter-him, he did not respond, so you let him to his won to commit that sin. Disregarding your advice which made you forsake him does not connote that you have ordered him to commit the sin.�

PROPHETHOOD

�The prophethood� [O� Our Lord! Surely we have heard a preacher calling to the faith; saying: forgive us therefore out faults, and cover our evil deeds and make as die with the righteous. Our Lord! And grant us what thou hast promised us by thy apostles and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection; surely thou do not fail to perform the promise.][163] Needless to say, reason-after knowing The Almighty God determines that man as a whole is a real property of Allah, and any act he does is in fact trespassing over this property, further move, anything man does to other beings and this property, further move, anything and things is trespassing over Allah�s reign. Reason does not authorize or permit man to act without The Almighty God's permission. This is a reasonable declaration, which affirms that punishment without evidence of declaration is ugly. Deviating from such evidence necessitates punishment, which will lead to disgrace and delusion. But man, dye to his structure and nature is a social creature which dictates that there should be Divine laws to distinguishing the rights of the individuals in the social life of the human community. The civil official laws legislated by governments and civil authorities cannot really confirm what is right; they cannot reveal any violation to the others rights, especially those rights that are decided by the Almighty God. Thus, Allah exhibits his mercy and compassion sending them his prophets and Messengers who show them what is lawful and legitimate and what is prohibited and illegitimate, what Allah commands them to do and what he prevents them to do. Prophets and Messengers outline the rights of the individuals. In addition to this, worshiping the Almighty God is the cause for creating mankind, as the Holy Qur'an says: [And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should server Me.][164] Serving Allah means worshiping him which requires a prophet who conveys Allah the suit limes prohibitions and permissions that decide the form of worship Allah requires from man; anything man innovates or adds to worship will spoil it and The Almighty God might never accept. All in all: sending a prophet elevates man's life and conversion, leading him to attain the utmost stage o perfection. Islam has faith in every prophet and what has been revealed to us, and what was revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Isaq and Jacob and the tribes, and what was given to Musa and Isa and the prophets from their Lord: [And we do not make my distinction between any of them, and to Him do we submit.][165] [Say: We believe in Allah and in that which had been revealed to us, and in that which was revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Isaq and Jacob and the tribes, and (in) that which was given to Mosa and Isa, and (in) that which was given to the prophets from their lord, we don�t make any distinction between any of them and to Him do we submit.][166] [The Messenger believes in what has been reveled to him from his Lord and (So do) the believers, they all believe in Allah and His angels and His books and His apostles; they say; we hear and obey, our lord! Thy forgiveness (do we crave), and to Thee is the eventual course.][167] Miracles of the Almighty God that affirm the prophethood: The claim for Divine prophethood or Imamat (leadership) or Imamat (leadership) must be supported by a miracle, or else nobody would believe in them. A miracle is something extraordinary and supernatural, it should comply with the cause of the prophet; and it is copulated with challenge i.e. it comes as evidence that affirms the authenticity of prophethood or Imamat (leadership). Being ascribed as supernatural connotes that it is beyond man's power and Potency (magic, quackery and employing natural device make an exception). Being described as (in compliance with the summons of the prophet) is a necessity, for if it does not comply with it, the prophetic pretext would be proved false and worthless as Musailameh Al Kath at has been proved an imposter. Being described as copulated with challenge; if the miracle does not confirm the authenticity of prophethood or Imamat (leadership); ill will not be called a miracle, rather it will be called (charisma), If prophethood or Imamat (leadership) as a claim and mission are copulated by a miracle from The Almighty God, it will support the claim and become evidence that authenticates the mission of the prophet.

Miracles of the seal of theprophets Muhammad Bin Abdullah (peace be upon him and his descendants) His (peace be upon him and his descendants) miracles fall into several categories: The first category: The miraculous dimensions of the Holy Qur'an The Holy Qur'an defies all human beings everywhere on earth along successive centuries of history. Later on we shall discuss this miraculous challenge. The second category: Miracles and rare chrismas of heavens such as rending the moon asunder, the return of the sun, preventing the sun preventing the sun from rising, the cloud that sheltered the prophet, appearance of meteors, dependence of flashy tables of food and drink and other graces from heaven. The Almighty God said; [The hour drew nigh and the moon did rend asunder; and if they see a miracle they turn aside and say: Transient magic.][168] The author of (Bihar Al Anwar) in his book discussed this miracle in addition of other miracles.[169] The third category: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) miracles appeared in solid bodies, plants, and other beings of land that talked with him and obeyed him. The author of Bihar Al�-Anwar has mentioned some of them.[170]

The fourth category: Some of his (peace be upon him and his descendants) identified miracles that pertainto the various animals and the witnesses, which certify them, specially the event of a poisoned sheep, etc. The author of (Bihar Al Anwar) has mentioned some of them.[171] The fifth category: Some of his (peace be upon him and his descendants) identified miraclesthat pertainto some of the inanimate objects, which certify his prophethood by reciting (Al shahadetain). Some of these miracles are mentioned in (Manaquib Ibn shahr AhSoob).[172] The sixth Category: Restoring the dead and speaking to them and healing the sick; some of which were mentioned in Bihar Al Anwar.[173] The seventh Category: Miracles made by some of his blessed organs (like increasing food and drink, for instance once he (peace be upon him and his descendants) saw on the day of Al Khandaqu battle Omrah Bint Rawaheh carrying some dates to her father. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) told her to put those dates right into his hands, then he (peace be upon him and his descendants) put them on a piece of rug, dates started to increase, even three thousand men ate frim that. Such miracles were mentioned in (Manaquib Ibn shahr Ashoob).[174] The eighth category: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) miracles in domination over the devils and jinn, and believing some of jinn in him, some of them are mentioned in Bihar Al Anwar.[175] The ninth category: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) miracles in foretelling the future these are so man, some of witch were mentioned in (Bihar Al Anwar).[176] The tenth category: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) special instructions about divinities, such instructions have wide opened let get into the knowledge of creation and the hereafter, enabling tem to ascend over mere natural physics, it enabled people to over develop their knowledge so as to attain the knowledge of monotheism. Philosophers of divinities realized this realized this early, yet they could does not go so far to comprehend the essence of those documental truths. Lord of the theists Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) in the will he has written to his son Al Hasan (peace be upon him) said: �Know O my child that no one has related messages about Allah the Almighty as the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) did. Therefore regard him as your forerunner and leader towards deliverance. Certainly, I shall spare no effort in giving you advice, and surely even if you try, you would not be to acquire that insight for your welfare as I have for you�.[177] The eleventh category: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) honorable instructions which propagate submission to the Almighty God, establishing and preserving the connection with Him; furthermore his (peace be upon him and his descendants) instructions which show man as to ascend to the peak of human perfections by means of maintaining good attributes and avoiding bad deeds and acts in our everyday life. We have made a research about men good and bad features as the Islamic law dictated them. My book (what is good and what is bad according to Islam) authenticates all Traditions and verses that tackle them; I have arranged them according to the Alphabetical order. Under the letter-A-alone I gave 505 cases. The twelfth category: Giving detailed explanation of Islamic laws in human life affairs, including perSonal, social, legal, economic and political which known that they are inspired and revealed by Allah, in case of comparing with man�s laws of socities and tribs that they are applying them since long centuries even the recent century. The thirteenth category: Miracles that pertainto the prophet�s gracious organs, which we shall be stated in, explain later. The fourteenth category: The description, which other prophets gave of him (peace be upon him and his descendants) certifies and authenticates his (peace be upon him and his descendants) qualities features time, place, birth, and parent�s condition. Later on we shall survey them. The fifteenth category: For his (peace be upon him and his descendants) manners, morality, biography and apparental deeds (refer to Biography as an Example, of Ibn Husham). The sixteenth category: Ejaculations heard in dreams and from idols which authenticate his (peace be upon him and his descendants) prophethood; Ibn shahr Ashoob mentioned some of them[178]�for instance the tale of Mazin�s: �When Utaireh slaughtered a sheep, while he was slaying it to his idol told him: A prophet from Mudhar has been chosen leave this stone idol. He slaughtered another sheep; the idol told him a poetic stanza: This is a chosen prophet That brought graces from heaven

The seventeenth category: Miracles he (peace be upon him and his descendants) made when Allah protected him from his enemies, as they were mentioned in the Holy Qur'an: [Surely We shall be sufficient for you against the scoffers.][179] [And when you recite the Qur'an, We place between you and those who do not believe in the hereafter a hidden barrier.][180] [Is not Allah sufficient for His servant? And they seek to frighten you with those besides Him; and whomSoever Allah makes err, there is no guide for him.][181] [O� you who believe! Remember Allah�s favor on you when people had determined to stretch forth their hands towards you, but He withheld their hands from you.][182] Other Traditions for this end were related in Bihar Al Anwar.[183] The eighteenth category: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) prophesies about the unseen, which later on we shall survey some. The nineteenth category: The acceptance of his (peace be upon him) prayers: some of these Traditions are mentioned in Manaquib Ibn shahr Ashoob.[184] The twenteeth category: Miracles of his (peace be upon him and his descendants) deeds: some of them narrated in Manaquib Ibn shahr Ashoob.[185] The twenty first categorty: Some single cases of his (peace be upon him and his descendants) miracles as narrated in Manaquib Ibn shahr Ashoob.[186] The twenty second category: Miracles that were revealed after his (peace be upon him and his descendants) death: some of their Traditions were mentioned in Manaquib Ibn shahr Ashoob.[187] Islam peerless prevalence in less than a century has been a solid evidence that affirmed the authenticity of prophethood, the hearts welcomed its arrival passionately, the souls raced eagerly towards it its light spread every where; the light of Islam from its mobility, courage, righteousness and just civilization.

The Holy Qur'an

The Holy Qur'an, Miraculous features: The everlasting miracle of the seal of prophets (peace be upon him and his descendants) is the Holy Qur'an; a miracle that be fits a prophet whose doctrines will last till the Resurrection Day, a book whose verses every will defy the non-believers. The sublime said: [And if you are in doubt as to that which we have revealed to our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful.][188] [Say: If men and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Qur'an, they could not bring the same of it, though some of them were helpers to each other.][189] [Or, do they say: He has forged it? Say: Then bring a chapter like this.][190] [Or, do they say: He has forged it? Say: Then bring ten forged chapters like and call upon whom you can besides Allah, if you are truthful.][191] [Then let them bring an announcement like it if they are truthful.][192] The Holy Qur�an superiority over other miracles: The Holy Qur�an maintains many attributes that make it superior, but biggest miracle if maintains elevating it over other miracles is that it represents a group of chapters written in Arabic letters, it is part of Arabic wording, it is a form of the easiest activity man makes, yet it genius exceeds any other genius. God has not made anything easier to man than the ability to speak; the more normal and human a deed may be the strongest the impact of a miracle will be. These Qur'anic chapters are nothing more than simple verses out of these letters is beyond both Arabs and none Arabs (Ajam).[193] 1. The miraculous of the Holy Qur'an from the eloquence point of view: Al Qur�an�s rhetoric and eloquence stand beyond question, even Arbian masters of eloquence could not defy the Holy Book. The Arabs in fact had deeply pondered on the Holy Qur'an eloquence, thereafter to realize that if they mean to object to it, they are definitely losers, subsequently some of them believed the summons of righteousness submitting to the the Holy Qur'an, to get finally honored by Islam others sought to become stubborn refuting to fencing by swords and daggers rather than by letters, they sought spear fight rather than rhetoric�s fight. Their surrender and disability to fight linguistically made them refute to arms fighting, which provides the greatest evidence confirming that the Holy Qur'an is a diving revelation that is beyond than potency. History does not suspect that ancient Arabs had attained a degree of mastery over language which no other motion prior to them or following has ever attained. They reached the peak of perfection, rhetoric mastery and logical fluency that nobody could ever match their phraseology. The Holy Qur'an defied them in a way that could have instigated their zeal, fanatics and arrogance. Nobody doubts in their self-esteem and preference for their eloquence it was an open challenge, time elapsed provoking them to respond to the challenge, yet they only exposed negligence, weakness and disability so that they started to hide them slaves or run away; the Almighty God said: [Now surely they fold up their breasts that they may conceal (their enmity) from him: now surely, when they use their garments as a covering, He knows what they conceal and what they make public.][194] Fourteen century elapsed, yet nobody could bring a book per to the Holy Qur'an: nobody ever could successfully oppose if; anybody taking such a risk would have been certainly disgraced. History relates some evidences in this respect, Musailameh wrote an imitation of surah Al Feel: (The elephant, what is the elephant and what do you know about the elephant, it has a little tail and a long proboscis) in his another revelation addresses to sujjah the fake prophet (we thrust it into you thrustly, and we bring it out from you outly). So� consider what kind of hallucinations are these.[195] Needless to say; translating the Holy Qur'an into another language or paraphrasing it into another system of Arabic wording preserving at the same time the original meaning (although it might loose some of its accurate details) is not an imitation of the genuine version, it is an interpretation or translation. If you want to write a book that matches with the Holy Qur'an then you have to invent other meanings and employ other words that maintain the same superiority of meaning and articulation. Some Christians tried to write something similar to the surah of Al Fateha as mentioned below: (Praise is due to the Beneficent, God of the universals. The whole potent king, all worships are due to Thee, and Thee we beseech for help, lead us to the path of faith). This is something really funny!! Nobody can claim that the Arabs had made something similar to the Holy Qur'an and it has been kept hidden all these centuries, or prone this, we say: such a version was available, Arabs would have publicized and propagated it in their festivals and pilgrimage seasons; more over the enemies of Islam would have widely that disables the other party�s pretext, fur there more would have carefully preserved it, for such a pretext would have been much more worthy to the opponents of Islam, they would have better made use of it than the old Traditions and the Islamic poetry which has filled the books of history and literary anthologies yet , we never hear today of such a version, although the Hloy Qur'an continuously defies all people (rather all people and jinnies to innovate something similar to it. [Say: if men and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Qur�an, they could not bring the like of it, though some of them were aiders of others.][196]

Today we notice that Christians and notice that Christians and enemies of Islam spend huge sums of money to degrade the prestige of Islam its most great prophet and its Holy book. Every year rather every month they repeat this; so of verse they wore capable of making use of such a ready made version, it would have been their best evidence and pretext they would not have spent all that money or exerted all that effort [they desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths but Allah will perfect His light, though the unbelievers may be averse.][197] Usually, man of letters who is accustomed to write eloquently for a long time might be able to master and imitate a certain good style of a certain master writer But, this never comes true when we want to imitate The Holy Qur�an for repetitive and exclusive reading of AlQur'an does not enable man to write anything similar to it which reveals that the Qur'ans style is beyond any teaching and learning. If the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) has composed (The Holy Qur�an) we would have found traces of similarity between the language of The Holy Qur�an and the language of his (peace be upon him and his descendants) sermons and speeches. What the Messenger had said maintains its own style and wording. Of ever there had been any resemblance between the words of the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) and those of The Holy Qur�an, it would have been figured out by people especially by the foes of Islam who do their best to inflect harm on it. Normal eloquence has certain limits which it can not exceed an Arab poet for example am write in one, two� three directions; he masters heroic poetry for example, ore egg for that purpose...etc. The Holy Qur�an has covered many subjects exposing a lot of lingual arts in a miraculous way that mankind cannot imitate.[198] It has been narrated that Quraish on hearing the verse: [And it was said: O� earth! Swallow down your water and O� cloud!! Clear away and the water was making abate and the affair was decided, and the rested on the Judi and it was said: Away with the unjust people.][199] Quickly left the leather sheets on which the best poems of the time were written (as by Imraul Quais, Tarafeh Bin Al Abd, Kaab Bin Zuhair and Amr Bin Kulthoom). The Arabs shamed to put these poems next to the verses of Allah, as if you have decorated your houses of Allah, as if you have decorated your house with some oil lanterns, then suddenly electric laws were lit. In (Ealam Al Wara) author said: �Al Waleed Bin Al Moghaireh was an old man, he was one the Arab wise men to whom they used to present their troubles and read their poetry; the poetry he selects was considered the best. He had sons who never leave Mecca. He had ten slaves, each of whom has one thousand Dinnars as a capital to trade with. Al Waleed possessed (Al Quantar) at that time (which is the skin of an ox whose in side is filled with gold), he used to Mick the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) (Accidentally he was Abu Jahl�s uncle). Once he came to him and said: �O Abu Abdu shams, what is this that is Muhammad saying, is it magic or minister�s speech or oration?� The man said: �Let me hear some of what he says. He then came close to the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants), who was sitting in (Al Hagar) and said: �O� Muhammad! Recite for me some of what he say your poetry. The man (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: it is not poetry, rather are Allah�s words, He who sent His prophets and Messengers to convey it to the people, the man said: �Recite some of it. The Messenger of Allah read: �In the name of Allah the Merciful the Beneficent, by hearing the word Beneficent the man started mocking the prophet by saying: �You are praying for a man of Al Yamameh who is called (Ar Rahman); Beneficent!� The prophet said: �NO� but I Pray for Allah the Beneficent and Merciful, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) started to recite the below verse: [But it they turn aside, and then say: I have warned you of a scourge like the scourge of Aad and Thamood.][200] A chill took over the man, the hair of his head and beard went on end, and he got up and left home never passing by Quraish. The Quraishians said: �O Abul Hakam, we think that Abu Abdu shams followed Muhammad�s religion, do not you see that he did not come back to us. He was convinced by Muhammad�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) words, after that he went home. Quraish for this was deeply disturbed. Abu Jahl went to him and said: O� uncle! You have disgraced us and brought out heads down to earth.

 

The man said: �O nephew! What is for?� Abu Jahl said: �You are affiliate to the religion of Muhammad.� Al Waleed said: �NO� I am not affiliated the religion of Muhammad, I still believe into the religion of my ancasters and my ancasters and my clan; rather I hear some difficult words that gave me a chill.� Abu Jahl said: �Was it poetry?� The man said: �NO� it was not poetry.� Abu Jahl said: �Was it oration?� The man said: �NO� Oration has its logical sequence, this speech is prose, but its paragraphs are not similar to each other it has certain elegance.� Abu Jahl said: �What is it then it is minister�s talk?� The man said: �No.� Abu Jahl said: �What is it then?� The man said: �Let me think of it.�

In the morrow they asked him: �O Abu Abdu shams! What do you think of it?� Al Waleed said: �Say it is magic for it captures the people nears.� For the sake of this man Allah revealed the verse starting with [leave Me and him whom I created alone then� over it are nineteen.][201] SO� notice their admiration of the Holy Qur'an and the Messenger who brought it, notice their wonder at it, which pushed them to describe it as (wonderful magic) that is beyond their knowledge and potency. It has been related that (Husham) who was a proponent of Imam (Ja'afar Bin Muhammad Al Saduque (peace be upon him)) said: Four famous men who were prominent atheists, great men of letters, and distinguished figures among the unbelievers met at Al Ka'abeh, namely they were Abdulkareem Ibn Abil Awjaa, Abu shakir Maymoon Bin Daysan, Abdullah Bin Al Muquafaa and Abdul Malik Al Basari, they had a conversation about pilgrimage, the Messenger of Islam (peace be upon him and his descendants) and the pressure in flicked on them by the faithful. They made up their minds to write something similar to the Holy Qur'an, which is the major axis of religion, thus its prestige and distinguished position might be shook. Each one of them took a quarter of the book, promising to compose its peer next year; thus of all of it could be imitated all the results and conclusions that are deduced from it could be abrogated; there they went their way to their promise next year. In the following season of pilgrimage they met and consulted what they have done. Ibn Abil Awjaa apologized and said that he was stunned by the verse: [If there had been in them any gods except Alla, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder.][202] Its eloquent structure and convincing pretext engaged his mind. The second one apologized saying that he was stunned by the verse: [O people! A parable is set forth, therefore listen to it, surely those whom you call upon besides Allah cannot create a fly, though they should all gather for it, and should the fly snatch away anything from them, they could not take it back from it; feeble indeed alike are the seeker and the sought.][203] It is revised by the translator, which kept him from doing his task. Ibn Al Muquaffaa said: He was stunned by the verse: [And it was said: O� earth! Swallow down your water, and O� cloud! Clear away; and the water was made to abate and the affair was decided, and the ark rested on the Judi, and it was said: �Away with the unjust people."][204] This kept him busy, so he would not do anything else. The fourth said; �I was stunned by the verse: [Then when they despaired of him they retired, conferring privately together.][205] Whose elegance and eloquence engaged my thinking and kept me from thinking of any other verse. Husham said: Once Abi Abdullah Al Sadique (peace be upon him) by passing on them, he (peace be upon him) pointed toward them and said: [Say: If men and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Qur'an, they could not bring the like of it, though some of them were aiders of each other.][206] These are few examples quoted from plenty other cases that show the submission of the experts of eloquence to the Holy Qur'an�s eloquence though they are his bitter foe.[207] We know the Arabs were the Holy Qur'an�s bitter enemies who did their best to invalidate it; a task for the sake of which they left their home and clans, sacrificing their souls for this end, add to this Allah�s reproach for them, [But if you do it not and never shall you do it.][208] so if ever they could have produced something similar to it, they would have done, but they could not for it is a miracle. 2. The Miraculous of the Holy Qur'an as contains high contents. The Holy Qur�an-as described in the book (the everlasting Miracle)- It is a comprehensive book that tackles all human affairs, ideologies, moralities and man�s activities in general in their minute particularities? This sophisticated system is constructed on a single base which is (Monotheism), all the knowledge�s Al Quarn�s are major are by products of that fundamental base. Islam�s fundamentals pertainto its applications. Organizing this system so punctually is beyond the ability of any authority at present time, despite the accummulation of knowledge, discoveries and inventions. Nothing to say about the advocate who brought the Qur'an, an illiterate man who had no schooling ever, living in a wild society masses of enemies who surround him, a lonely fighter who stand against the whole world calling them to his religion and converting them to the Almighty God.[209] The Holy Qur'an in so many verses has disclosed that Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) was illiterate, the prophet has propagated his mission among his clan, and none of them could deny it, which in itself was clear evidence that supported his claim. Though he (peace be upon him and his descendants) was illiterate, yet the Book he brought contained knowledge�s that arouse the astonishment of philosophers, and thinkers of the east and the west, from the day Islam emerged up till today; and it will continue the Day of Judgment, which in itself if the greatest miracle.[210] Can any human potency � as the authority At Tabatabaai said:[211]"Create such a Divine evidential knowledge�s that may stand equal to the Holy Qur'an and resemble its clearness? Can man�s potency create genuine manners that match the virtues and noble morals, which the Holy Qur'an advocates? Can this potency legislate an absolute statute of jurisprudence that regulates the life of all human beings with no contradiction at all simultaneously preserving the soul of monotheism and fear of God in every statute plus its aftermath? Can such a full control and absolute mastery be attained by an illiterate man who has grown up among people knew no thing about humanity � despite it qualities and positive characteristics; the only thing they used to do was to make their living by raids and invasions, property plundering, burying alive their newborn girls, killing their sons and daughters for fear of poverty, boasting of their ancestors making love to their mothers, proudly exposing their fornication, disregarding knowledge, demonstrating illiteracy; and despite this fake arrogance and phony pride they were abject to every strong power; once they became subjects to Al Yaman, then they submitted themselves to Abyssinia, they also became subjects to the Roman and Persian empires. Such was conditions in Al Hijaz before Islam. Dose any sane man dare to present a book which he claims to be as to people�s conversation; there after to fill it with prophecies about the unseen (in the past and future and about those who proceeded and those who will follow us) in every respect and every form�later on one of those prophecies will prove mistaken? Can a man, who is part of this material nature-in terser into all human affairs presenting to the world a stock of know ledges, sciences, laws, wisdom, advices, parables, and Traditions about everything in the world, all of which � though over sophisticated will prove correct? All this happens despite the fact that man can never maintain a constant state of whether to perfect his works or to do them without perfection. Any clever man would never suspect the fact that those absolute qualities- and other more (which the Holy Qur'an contains) are above human ability and beyond the normal material means-If man fails to do so� he better refers to the more experienced people. 3. The Miraculous of the Holy Qur'an as contains perfect meanings. The Holy Qur'an tackled many subjects which fall at opposite ends; scholastics, divinities, the beginnings of creation, resurrection, metaphysics, secrets of the soul, the whole potency, satan (Ibliss), the jinn, astronomy, the earth; history, some Traditions about the ancient prophets and what took place between them and their nations; some parables, pretexts, ethics, family rights, civil politics, social and military structures, destiny and fact, (AlKasb) and the free choice, Divine services, deals, marriage and divorce, duties, punishments, penalties, sanctions�etc. In all these topics the Holy Qur'an presents factual truths, which are too immune to be criticized and are not vulnerable ever to any vanity. Human beings usually cannot bring about something like this, especially those who had grown up amid ignorant nations, which have no share of knowledge. Therefore, any theory or book written in any filed of theoretical sciences turns after a short while false. The more these sciences are exposed to research, the more clearly the facts will show; the later will reach to conclusions that do not affirm the conclusions of the former. The truth is the offspring of research-as the proverb says. Subsequently, the books of ancient philosophers and researchers have become always a targete for the late critics, to the late critics; to the degree that what a former scientist had considered absolute evidence suddenly turns after criticism to be an illusion. 4. The miracoulous of the Holy Qur'an as none difference in the meanings: Aspects of this harmony are:

First: Every sane experienced man knows for sure that composing a Tradition or legislation on phony false claims will definitely lead the composer to contradiction, especially if he tackles some important affairs in fields of legislation, sociology, ideology, ethics that are usually established on accurate bases and rules; the risk of forgetfulness will increase in proportion to the sequence of time. Whether he wanted or not, such a man will have to face contradiction of thoughts, for it is the nature of man to fall into deficiencies; a famous proverb says: a lire has no memory. The Holy Qur'an dealt with different affairs, yet no verse whoSoever exhibits any contradiction or discrepancy of meaning, though it might survey a creation incident twice or more, it never shows any weakness. Take for example the fale of Musa (peace be upon him), several times the Holy Book has narrated it, every reading discloses a special quality that distinguishes it from the other Traditions yet the essence of the meaning has never been altered.

Second: If you come to know that the verses of the Holy Qur'an had been gradually revealed like sparkling stars according to the events and situations that necessitated them, them you will realize that the Holy Qur'an is a spirit from Allah; those verses which were revealed on different occasions ought to have been incoherent when put together, but the Holy Qur'an in both cases was miraculous, the verses that are revealed on different occasions are meaningful and miraculous; when they were put together another miracle emerged, the Almighty God described as: [Do they not then meditate on the Qur'an? And if it were from anyone other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy.][212]

Third: The universal is composed when matter was composed, and the law that masters this composition is the law of transition and integration; for every existent, which comprises part of the world. Is gradually developing from weakness into strength, and from deficiency into perfection � in his subjective being and all the complementary acts and effects continue. To transite and integrate; every one of us witnesses this integration daily, subsequently, whenever we revise our deeds of the past, we find them fall of falls and mistakes; a thing no sane man can deny. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) has brought this Book like stars to people, gradually reciting to them parts of it all along twenty three years, under various conditions and discriminate circumstances in Mecca and Al Medineh, day and night, at residence and travel, in war as wells in peace, in days of horror and days of peace, at difficult times as well as at ease; he brought it in order to dictate Divine and legislate religious laws which respond to every need. This is a book which shows no discrepancy of the information it disclose, the truths it states revels no contradiction with each other, each verse interprets another, and each sentence authenticates another, as imam Ali (peace be upon him) said: �Each part of it responds to the other; and each part of it reveals the other.�[213] If somebody other than Allah has composed this book, its order, elegance and eloquence would have been disturbed. 5. The miraculous of the Holy Qur'an as the information of unseens: The Holy Qur'an, in a number of its verses narrated about a number of important things, whatever it has related has been right, never missing reality to any part. The unseen events and facts, which the Holy Qur�an narrated, fall into eight categories: First: Relating about Allah the Almighty, His gracious qualities, His better arrangement; He is the first and the first to be addressed, He is the first by all means of the word, He is the most supreme and the Most prominent feature of the unseen, rather He is the unseen if the unseen happens to mean the hidden; the Holy Qur'an as a whole (or almost as a whole) is a research about the creator, His attributes, verses and words. Second: It narrates about the spirit and spiritual things, Allah�s angels on earth and in heaven, detailed description of this have been disclosed in the open Book, which relates of God, the angels and the spirit.

Third: Narrating about ancient nations, whose lives have been lost into history, how wonderfully the Holy Qur'an�s sermons disclose lessons extracted from the lives of ancient nations in the past centuries!?

Fourth: Narrating about man�s affairs, whether they were individuals or about a man as a genus; the future of his rule and his stages of development. It also foretells the wars and disturbances. It even narrates about event that took place after the Divine revelation, especially after the verse of: [Alif-Laam-Mim, the Romans are vanquished, in a near land and they after been vanquished, shall over come within a few years.][214] The verses of the two chapters of Al Kawther and Abi Lahab and such meanings were common in the various verses of the Holy Qur'an; we have mentioned them in Al Hidayeh Al Muhammadiyeh.

Fifth: Foretelling of a hidden nearby event (or thing); a thing, which thick clouds had veiled from the senses, as the sublime, said: [And you see the mountain, you think them to be solid, and they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The handiwork of Allah Who has made everything thoroughly; surely He is aware of what you do.][215]

Sixth: Narrating of what can not be seen due to far distance which makes everything look small and invisible to the eye that is not equipped with a spectacle or a telescope or Binoculars; telling about the mysteries of stars and planets falls under this title.

Seventh: Telling about resurrection and restoration in the isthmus; the state of spirits before resurrection and after it, heaven or hell; the Qur'an is full of such metaphysical references in its verses.

Eight: Telling of information which the normal attract brain or sensation of man could not ever have grasped if the revelation of the creator did not take place. [And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and what He has spread forth in both of them of living beings, and when He pleases He is all-powerful to gather them together.][216] Telling of the unseen-which was the prophets miracle is something that neither the abstract brain of man, nor his senses can realize; as it was mentioned in surah Al Kawthar; the prophet�s enemy Al Aass Bin Waeel-himself will be without offspring, where as the prophet�s offspring will increase and develop; such facts might be in attainable to he senses or brain, yet they come into existence. Such an authenticated item of news must have been obtained from the revelation and knowledge of Allah, thus the prophecies proved true. To demonstrate examples of the abovementioned metaphysical mysteries we survey nine verses leading to this end: 1. [Say: If men and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Qur'an, they could not bring the like of it though some of them were helpers of others.][217] At the dawn of Islam in Mecca, the Book tells the people that whatever they might do they will not be able to bring a book similar to this Qur'an. Today more than fourteen centuries had elapsed since that challenge, yet it is still true. Similar to this is the verse of: [And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful, but if you do it not and never shall you do it.][218] It has foretold for eternally in negation that the opponents of Islam would not be able to bring the similar of the Holy Qur'an and has stressed upon int too. 2. [Indeed, We see the turning of your face to heaven, so We shall surely turn you to a Quiblah, which you shall like; turn then your face towards the sacred Mosque.][219] Subsequently the illiterate prophet built the Quiblah of his mosque in Yathrib towards the Ka'aba at the centre of Mecca. Strange enough until today we find that did old Quiblah is still facing the sacred Mosque of Mecca, exactly facing it; how could that illiterate prophet of Mecca, exactly facing it; how could that illiterate prophet without any compass or telescope situate his Quiblah (niche) in Al Medina exactly facing the sacred Mosque at Mecca; it was his exactly facing the sacred Mosque at Mecca; it was his inner intuition by means of the compass of faith that enabled him to do this. 3. [He it is Who made the sun a shining brightness and the moon a light, and ordained for it stations that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning (of the time.)][220] This verse is an evidence of the sun light and its structure; it is made of a number of colored lights; the British physicist isle Newton A.D.1737 approved this after about one thousands year from that Divine revelation. Physics revealed that part of the light is pure red, another part is pure yellow, a third part is pure green� these lights when put together compose the white light (like the sunlight); the Holy Qur'an has disclosed this law as a prophecy. The Arabian illiterate prophet had no technical rules or accurate industrial devices, which might have enabled him to obtain these facts. 4. [I swear by the heaven and the comer night, and what will make you know what the comer by night is? The star of piercing brightness.][221] This verse describes the stars, meteors and planets in their courses; Imam Ali (peace be upon him) on answering a questioner about them interpreted this verse by saying: �A star that runs across heavens until it reaches the sky which is just above us, and then it travels back to its own course�.[222] The reference here is not to the light of all stars, rather to a certain light emitting from a certain star. 5. [And all float on in a sphere.][223] This verse discloses that every star in heaven has its own orbit and special sphere; a fact which modern astronomy has confirmed. 6. [Glory is to Him Who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows, and of what they do not know.][224] Fourteen years before, this verse had foretold duality among plants and animals; in addition to the duality of other species that were unknown to man. The significance of this gracious verse found its application in modern sciences of this gracious verse found its application in modern sciences, never in ancient ones. 7. [And thou see the mountains and you think them to be solid, but they will pass away as the clouds pass away.][225] The sublime also said: [It is He Who has made the earth manageable.][226] The meaning of this verse reveals a comparison between earths a certain kind of camel�s movement; the metaphorical imagery suggests the fast movement of earth; this revelation took place centuries before Galileo the Italian scientist as well as before the German scientist Cooper Neckus who discovered the earth movement. The verse says: [Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse and the mountains as page?][227] It runs to the same end. 8. and 9. Two verses which outline the (gravity law). These verses had been thoroughly interpreted in the book of (Al shari'aah wat Tabi'aah). [Do they not observe the birds above them, spreading their wings and folding them in? None can uphold them except God the most gracious: truly it is He that watches over all things.][228] [Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars.][229] These two verses give you a feeling that the stars and planets far above in the skies are fixed with some invisible pillars (i.e. the cones of gravity). The Holy Qur'an disclosed this fact showing its laws long before sir Isac Newton. The strength that exposes itself in the prophet�s speech which relates the details of the unseen as expressed in the Holy Qur'an frankly discloses his (peace be upon him and his descendants) righteousness, his strong faith in his principles and his esteem among the people. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) had the best mentality of the age, specially in intellectual argument, thus his prophecies complied with reality; if it had not, his opponents would Howe possessed a fatal weapon that could have defeated him and repudiated his cause. 6. The miraculous of the Holy Qur'an as the powerful impact and highly attraction: Anybody who reads and meditates the Holy Qur'an will realize that it is absolutely pure and free of forgery and fabrication. The most gracious prophet had not fabricated it; subsequently nobody else could have arranged a book similar to it. Others who had fabricated and duplicated other versions of this book were innovating words and attributing them to Allah, therefore they missed the special attraction, which the Holy Qur'an maintains. They themselves describe the words of the Holy Qur'an as being (magic); so Allah the sublime related: [They said to Musa: whatever be the signs thou briniest, to work there with thy sorcery on us, we shall never believe in thee.][230] [And unbelievers among them said: This is nothing but evident magic.][231] [And when the truth did come to them from Us, they said: This is indeed evident sorcery!] [232] Surveying the alleged Bible of the Christians confirms and supports the fact that the Holy Qur'an is Allah the sublime�s Book, for those Bible over praise and over estimate Jesus to the degree they claim he is the son of God. The Holy Qur'an answered this false claim by saying: [And behold; Allah will say: O� Jesus the son of the Mary! Didst thou say unto men, worship my mother and me as gods in derogation of Allah?][233]

The Holy Qur'an all along its discourses repeatedly emphasized that Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) is only a servant of Allah who worships Him and id afraid of his torment. [Say: Verily, I am commanded to serve Allah with sincere devotion, and I am commanded to be the first of those who bow to Allah in Islam. Say: �I would, if I disobeyed my Lord, indeed have fear of the penalty of grievous Day, say: It is Allah I serve with my sincere (and exclusive) devotion.][234] You never find anywhere in the Holy Qur'an other than the emphasis that Muhammad is an envoy and a Messenger, no more: [Muhammad is no more than an apostle.][235] [Say thou, I am but a man like you, it is revealed to me by inspiration, that your God is one God.][236] [So have We made the (Qur'an) easy in thee own tongue, that with it thou mayest give glad tidings to the righteous, and warnings to people given to contention.][237] [O apostle! Proclaim the message which has been sent to thee from thy Lord, if thou didst not, thou would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission.][238] The Holy Qur'an in some verses went so far to address the prophet in a tough way: [O� thou that folded in garments; stand to prayer by night, but not all night.][239] [O� thou wrapped up (in a mantle)! Arise and deliver thy warning! And thy Lord do thou magnify! And thy garments keep free from stain and all abomination shun.][240] [And stand stead fast as thou art commanded.][241] [So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the faith.][242] [And Keep thy soul content with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His face.][243] [And ask forgiveness for thy fault, and celebrate the praises of thy Lord in the evening and in the morning.][244] 7. The Holy Qur�an�s compliance with the physical discoveries in recent centuries: The Holy Qur'an�s major topic and concern is conversion to Allah and guidance to His ways as well as educating man according to the Islamic teaching, in fact this is the axis to all Qur'anic researches. Researches of physics as a whole fall out of this range and circle, they are foreign to what the Holy Qur'an says, but generally, man can make use of some hints and words here and there in the Qur'anic texts, to infer meanings about physics, geology astronomy mysteries which were not discovered until recent centuries by means of these accurate devices made during the ages. Some evidences given by western Christians admitting the glory of the Holy Qur'an. The intensity of Christian fanaticism in Europe arose their antagonism to Islam and Muslims; which developed during the crusades (the well known wars) along history; the Christians invaded the Islamic territories shedding a lot of Islamic blood. In spite of their sever fanaticism, they were obliged to admit the glory of the Qur'an; strange enough some of their writers and authors adopted a strange behavior, the book (Al Muajezeh Al Khalideh) disclosed this;[245] �We have already stated how the Arab eloquent men of letters had admitted the genius of the great source of Divine revelation that has made a plea for our claim that (enemies are man�s best witnesses.) It is really strange how such arrogant people have submitted to the laws of the Holy Qur'an, and how their thinkers have submitted to the evidence it gives and to its overwhelming sovereignty, all that glory has been disclosed by a poor illiterate man. Today history repeats itself, we witness the great characters of Europeans and Christians admitting to the favor of the Holy Qur'an, and to the supremely of connotation and significance. Europeans and Christians stand at the peak of their glory, while we lay helpless and inactive at the lowest pit. Their intellectuals confess that the Holy Qur'an is superior to any other book or sermon; it is the Book that attracts the hearts, a school of wisdom, and the decisive opinion about everything; it is ideal in its miraculous genuity and it is the best code of laws that organizes people�s lives. Thousands of people presenting thousands of convincing proofs that can satisfy and convince anybody.

We demonstrate some of those evidences here briefly: 1. Sir snipes said: �The Holy Qur�an is the great law which no falsehood can approach neither from before or behind, it is fit for every time and place, if Muslims really adhere to it, applying its teaching and statutes they will be masters of the nations, or at least, their conditions would be similar to that of the over developed nations. 2. The British Mr. Smith said: �The only lucky opportunity which man�s history had hit is that Muhammad had brought the Book which is both a miracle of eloquence and a code of laws and legislations for prayer and religion. 3. The French Dr. Ghosted Lobon said: �The ethical teachings which the Holy Qur�an advocates represent the ideal example of high manners, and the essence of gracious moral principles, which are much more superior to the manners as stated in the Bible. 4. Dower Aur Lahars said: �The Holy Qur�an has shown in their land like light-what a light-, a light of wisdom sent down to the prophet who was commissioned to guide man; he brought them a code of laws by means of which they will never go astray; this code of laws is the Holy Qur�an which comprehends their interests at this mundane world and will serve their good on the day after. 5. Count Henry due coasty said: �If the Holy Qur'an had nothing but its eloquence, its elegance of meaning and its beauty of structure, that alone would have made it arrest the thoughts and capture the hearts.� 6. Renoir said: �we have to admit that physics, astronomy, philoSophy and mathematics which flourished in Europe at the tenth century are generally extracted from the Holy Qur'an, rather Europe is indebted to Islam.� 7. Judith said: �The merits of The Holy Qur�an attract the reader, enchanting his wits by its eloquence and fluency. 8. The French Dr. Morris said: �The Holy Qur�an is the best book produced by the Divine industry to serve man. 9. Cauzan Du Perusal said: �Revelations that inspire the Holy Qur�an represent a difficult complicated challenge, for researchers could not find a suitable solution for it, how could an illiterate man convoy such verses. Oriental countries affirmed that these verses are prodigies, which the human brain can imitate neither by wording nor by meaning. Those verses astonished Aquabeh Bin Rabiah by their elegance. Their nice accurate patterns were enough reason that made Omar Bin Al Khattab believe in God who has made them; Al Najashi king of Abyssina heaving verses from surah Maryam recited by Ja'afar Bin Abi Talib started to cry then he shouted: �Jesus Christ had said something similar to this speech.� 10. Polatettlar said: �It is impossible to compare man�s eloquence to that of the Qur'an, however man masters his language and its arts, he will not be able to compete with The Holy Qur�an, it is a miracle which neither men nor angels can imitate. He then referred to these verses: [Or they may say: He forged it. Say: Bring ye then ten surahs forged, like unto it, and call (to your aid, whomSoever, ye can, other than God! If ye speak the truth! If they (your false gods) answer not your call, know ye that this revelation is sent down (replete) with the knowledge.][246] Contemplate this evidence, which confirms and approves the miraculous secret of the Holy Qur�an and its superior eloquence, which exceeds the ability of man and nature. This reasonable inference has been authenticated by the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants), who challenged those who claimed that Mohammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) himself has written the Holy Qur'an, and then attributed it to Allah. The Messenger extracted a verse for them saying: Bring ten verses you yourself and your partners, so those verses (which you compose) will be put next to the genuine Divine ones and examined. Genuine pearls when put next to false one will reveal the falsity of the phony ones. 11. The German Magazine (Orient Tribune) published in Berlin in its issues number 6-7 of the first year 1950 wrote: professor Dr. Selevieo Verdiue said: �Most researchers who had studied the Holy Qur�an and the history of oriental people closely and without any fanaticism become unanimously convinced that the Holy Qur�an untill today has been the best favor done to serve man. We heard a story about the British Mr. Carbines professor of Arabic literature in the Indian college of Aligarh; once a group of intellectuals and professors gathered around him in a party, asking about the miracle of the Holy Qur'an. He answered them: �The Holy Qur�an has a little brother called (Nahjul Balagheh) which nobody can imitate, nothing to say about the elder brother. Now that we have remembered what this professor said about (Nahjul Balagheh) describing its prominent position in the literature of the Arab would (and the international literature for this purpose); we refer to comprehensive word said by the Imam of eloquent, master of orators and intellectuals, the faithful disciple of Al Qur'an, and the stepSon of the wise Arabian prophet, Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) Who describes the Holy Qur'an prominent prestige saying: "Then, Allah sent to him the book as a light whose flames can not be extinguished, a lamp whose gleam dose not fade, a sea whose depth can not be sounded, a way whose direction does not mislead, array whose light does not darken, a partition between good and evil whose arguments do not weaken, a clarification whose fundamentals cannot be dismantled, a remedy which leaves no apprehension for disease, an honor whose supporters are not defeated, and a truth whose helpers are not abandoned. Therefore it is the abode of belief and its center, the source of knowledge and its ocean, the orchard of justice and its pools, the base stone of Islam and its construction, the valleys of truth and its plains, and an ocean whatever water is drawn from would never be empty; springs whatever water is taken from would never get dry, a fountain whose water is never exhausted."[247]

 

The miraculous of the Holy Qur'an challenges by different ways The Holy Qur'an offered a multi level challenge, (see Al Mizan interpretation).[248] 1- The Holy Qur'an, a challenge of eloquence: [Or they may say: �He forged it �say� Bring ye then ten suras forged, like unto it, and call (to your aid) whomSoever ye can, other than God-if ye speak the truth! If then they (your false gods) answer not your (call) know ye that this revelation is sent down (replete) with the knowledge of God, and that there is no God but He! Will ye even then submit (to Islam)?][249] This verse was revealed in Mecca. The sublime said: [Or do they say, �He forged it�? Say: Bring then a surah like unto it and call (to your aid) anyone you can besides God, if it be ye speak the truth! Nay, they charge with falsehood that whose knowledge they can not compass, even before the elucidation there of hath reached them.][250] This verse too was revealed in Mecca; it defies the others to imitate its eloquence and rhetoric�s, for the Arabs of that age were masters of eloquence. 2- The prophet to whom the Holy Qur'an was revealed as a challenge: The Holy Qur�an intraduced the illiterate prophet who had no education as a challenge; he (peace be upon him and his descendants) transferred the miraculous meanings and words faithfully to the others. [Say, if God has so willed I should not have rehearsed it to you, nor would He have made it known to you, a whole life-time before this have I tarried amongst you, will ye not then understand!][251] The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) was one of the believers, never did the show himself superior to them, never showing himself to be more knowledgeable than them, he spent forty years-that is to say two thirds of his age-without showing any thing that distinguishes him from the others; suddenly he brought them what he had, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) brought what their best intellectuals could not make propagating it all over the countries of the world and none dared to object or oppose him however sophisticated or scientifically esteemed he might be. 3- The Holy Qur�an's knowledge as a challenge: Allah discloses in The Holy Qur�an that knowledge is a challenge to the people. The sublime said: [And We have sent down to thee the book explaining all things.][252]

He also said: [Nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered), but is inscribed in a record clear (to those who can read).][253] Other verses were revealed to this end. Islam tackles every small or big detail of philoSophical Divine knowledge-as it is well known to whoever has followed its teachings and instructions; stated by the Holy Qur'an which has portrayed the outlines; as well as by the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) who has explained the details thoroughly. [So� takes what the Messenger assigns to you and denies yourselves that which he withholds from you.][254] The sublime also said: [That you mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah][255] Islam too� tackles the virtuous ethics; religious subordinate laws such as worship, deals, politics, social affairs and everything that pertains to man and his deeds. All this is established on man�s nature and the origin of monotheism all these elements and their compliance with the good of man through the sequence of ages are shown in what the sublime said: [And indeed it is a book of exalted power; no falsehood can approach it from before or behind it. It is sent down by one full of wisdom worthy of all praise.][256] And his other verse; [We have, without doubt, sent down the message, and We-shall assuredly guard it (from corruption).][257] The Holy Qur�an is a book that can never be eradicated by the laws of transition and integration. 4. The Holy Qur�an, a challenge by foretelling the unseens:

This Book has challenged the people by foretelling the unseen in several verses: Some of which relate stories about the ancient prophets and their people. The sublime said: [Such are some of the stories of the unseen, which We have revealed unto thee; before this, neither thou nor thy people knew them][258] The sublime after relating the tale of Yousuf said: [Such is one of the stories of what happened unseen, which We reveal by inspiration unto thee: nor waste thou (present) with them when they concerted their plans together in the process of weaving their plots.][259] The sublime in the tale of Maryam also said: [This is part of the tidings of the things unseen which We reveal unto thee (O Apostle) by inspiration: Thou was not with them when they cast lots with arrows as to which of them should be charged with the care of Mary: nor was thou with them when they disputed (the point).][260] He also said in surah Maryam: [Such was Jesus the son of Mary: it is a statement of truth, about which they vainly dispute.][261] There are also some other verses to this end. Other verses foretell about events of the future as the sublime said: [The Roman Empire has been defeated in a land close by, but they even after this defeat of theirs will soon be victorious within a few years.][262] The sublime, after the prophet�s return to Mecca (which followed Al Hijrah) said: [Verily He Who ordained the Qur'an for thee will bring thee back to the place of return.][263] To these end the sublime also said: [Ye shall enter the sacred mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, and hair cut short and without fear.][264] [And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief.][265] [We have, without doubt sent down the message: and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).][266] In addition to that so many other verses promise the faithful believers of a better hereafter and threaten the polytheists and non-believers of Mecca. 5. The Holy Qur�an, a clearness of any discrepancy: The sublime said: [Do they not consider the Qur'an with care? Had it been from anyone other than Allah, they would surety have found therein much discrepancy.][267] We have elaborated about this verse; he who wants to check may refer our previous chapter.

Miracles of the prophet�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) organs The miracle, which the most gracious Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) was commanded to challenge others with it to approve Islam, is the Holy Qur�an; a Book that remains as a miracle till the Day of resurrection. So it is an immortal everlasting miracle. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) had other miracles and virtues that are registered in history books. In this quick study we cannot check and investigate each of them; however they are authenticated widely transmitted traditions, which require no other study. In this rapid review we shall refer to some of those miracles, namely those that pertainto his (peace be upon him and his descendants) organs, we extracted our examples from Ibn shahrashoob�s book (Al Manaqibe) the author said: His (peace be upon him and his descendants) light: Walking in a dark night, a light similar to the moon�s-used to emit from him. Ayisheh said: �One night I lost a needle, no lantern was handy then, suddenly the prophet got in, and the light shining from his face (peace be upon him and his descendants) helped me find the needle. Hamzeh Bin Omar Al Aslami said: �One night we went on a campaign with the prophet, it was pitch dark and light was emitting from his (peace be upon him and his descendants) fingers.� His (peace be upon him and his descendants) sweat: Jabir Bin Abdullah said: �Any road he passed would catch his smell so that any passer by within two days later could easily tell that the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) had passed along that road.� Muslim narrates: "The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) used to take a nap at Ummus Salamah�s quarter; she made a habit for her to collect his sweat and mix it with scent.� Abdul Jabbar Bin wail narrated from his father, he said: �The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) brought a pail of water and took a sip of it, and then he had his ablution, rinsed his mouth and spat in the pail, the water turned into fragrant scent.� His (peace be upon him and his descendants) shadow: His shadow (peace be upon him and his descendants) has never fallen on the ground because it is a part of darkness. If ever he stood in the sunshine, in the moon light or even into a lantern light, the prophet�s light was stronger and more glimmering than their light. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) stature: He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was taller than whoever might walk with him, however taut his walk mate might be His (peace be upon him and his descendants) head: A cloud normally provided a shade for him from the sunshine, a cloud that walks with him and pauses whenever he (peace be upon him and his descendants) pauses; never did a bird fly over his head. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) eyes: He (peace be upon him and his descendants) used to see everywhere even behind his head. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) nose: Since Allah the sublime created him, he never smelt bad. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) mouth: If ever he spat into a pot of water, it turns into scent. It has been narrated that Tufail Ameeri told the prophet about his leprocy, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) orderd a pail of water to be brought for him, he spat into it, told the man to rins his body with that water, the man washed his body with that and was recoverd.

His (peace be upon him and his descendants) tongue: He was mastere of so many languages. His features (peace be upon him and his descendants): Light used to emit from seventeen spot in his face. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) ears: He used to hear even when he was asleep, further he used to hear what (Jibrayeel) used to say even when he was among others. In a Tradition from (Rabea Al Abrar) it is said that Abu Sufyan got into meet the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) who was gathering the people for a campaign. Abu Sufyan whispered to himself, �by the name of Lat and Uzzah, O� son of Abi Cabsheh! By God I shall gather men and horses against Cabsheh! By God I shall gather men and horses against you that you will not be able to count, and I am looking forward to climb this tribune.� The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) said in a loud voice: �O� Aba Sufyan! May Allah protect us from your devil.� His (peace be upon him and his descendants) breast:

 

He was the most knowledgeable man on earth (Arabs used to consider the heart as the center of sensation and realization, so the breast pertains to this concept here). His (peace be upon him and his descendants) back: Between his shoulders the seal of prophethood can be seen, whenever he revealed it sunshine glimmered, on his back was written :(There is no god but Allah, who has no partner, go wherever you like, you are victorious.) Jabir Bin samreh said: �I saw the end of his shoulder bone, exactly like the egg of a pigeon. Al Khidri described it as: A part of the body traveling to nowhere. Abu Zayd Al Ansari said: Thick hair on his shoulders. Al sayeeb Bin Yazeed: Like the tent of a bride. When people doubted his (peace be upon him and his descendants) death, his wife Asmaa bint Umais put her hand under his back between his shoulders and said: �The Messenger of Allah is died; the seal of prophethood is removed from its place.� His abdomen (peace be upon him and his descendants): He used to tie a stone to his abdomen so as to calm down his hunger. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) heart: His eyes used to sleep but never did his heart. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) hands: Water used to boil amid his fingers while pebbles used to tick like the beads of a rosary. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) knees: He was born naturally circumcision, never had a wet (sexual) dream, because such dreams were the product of Satan, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) had the lust of forty prophets. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) manners of excretion: Ayisheh said: I said: �O Messenger of Allah! When you get into the lavatory, and thereafter to leave it, I get into it after you only to find nothing but the perfume of a scent.� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �Our bodies-we prophets lot-are fed on the nourishment of heaven, so all our excretions are immediately swallowed by earth." The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) knew the intention of a man who followed him to check the lavatory after him, so he (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �We prophets lot never leave behind any wastes similar to what other people leave behind.� Ummu Ayman said: �One morning the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: (O� Ummu Ayman! Go and spill what is in the pitcher) (meaning the urine, because he (peace be upon him and his descendants) has urinated in it. Ummu Ayman said: �By Allah I have drank every drop of it for I was thirsty. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) flashed a big smile and said: �O you! You never get satisfied!� The tale of the phlebotomy is driven from the some origin. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) thighs: Every animal the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) mounted remained at its age never growing old. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) legs: He (peace be upon him and his descendants) dangled his legs down a brackish well, the water turned sweet. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) strength: Nobody could resist him. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) esteem:

The moon shook his cradle when he was a body, never did he pass by a tree, which did not say hello to him; flies never perched on him, bugs never approach him. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) manners of walking: When he used to trade on a flat easy ground, his footprint never did show, but when he trades on a solid ground, his footprint did show. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) prestige: He was great and dignified among the people (to the degree that (Chosro�s) envois Were taken aback, yet he had been so modest and the people�s hearts teded towards him, and no friend or proponent would ever leave him.[268] Some of the unseen Future Events Which the Prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) Had Foretold: Al Hurr Al Amely in his books (I thbat Al Hudat) related: Al Tebrisi said: �The prophet's miracles of foretelling the up unknown and unexpected are countless; Ubay Bin Kaab narrated some: �The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �Give the good tidings to the nation, they will be glorious, victorious; splendor and elevated prestige awaits them.� Buraideh Al Aslami said that the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) told him: �Some people will travel, do choose to travel to Khurasan; then seek the city of Marrow to reside in for it was built by Alexander of the two Horns; he (peace be upon him and his descendants) prayed for him and said (No misfortune will ever befall its inhabitants). Abu Hurayreh narrated that: �The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �you will fight the inhabitants of (Khuz) and (Karman) before Dooms Day; standers (Ajam) with red faces, snub noses, small eyes, their faces as if metallic shields flattened by hammers.� Al Hurr Al Amely also narrated: The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold that his nation will make trebles: �After my death, you will turn disbelievers; every one of you will be slaying by sword his fellow men.� Al Bukhari narrated this tale in his (Al saheeh) authenticated by (Ibn Ammar). He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �I shall be pioneering you to the pool of Al Kawthar� then he (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �They are my people; others will tell him, O prophet! You do not know what they have done after your departure�. I (i.e. the prophet) shall say: �Dame upon him who had changed his faith after me.� This tale is related in the Bukhari�s (Al saheeh). Quays Bin Abi Halim narrated that; when Ashen approached (Al Hawab) area, she heard the dogs barking and she said: �I think I shall be going back, for I have heard the prophet ask us (i.e. his wives): �Which one of you the dogs of the (Hawab) will bark at?� Az Zubair said: �Probably Allah wants you to bring about a reconciliation to the people.� The prophet�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) speech to Az Zubair when he met with Ali (peace be upon him) at (Saqueefeh Beni saaideh) is another example for his ability to foretell things. He addressed him saying: O� Zubair! Do you like him (i.e. Ali)? Az Zubair said: �What does prevent me from loving him? The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants): You will fight him being unjust to him. Abi Jarweh Al Mazini said: �I heard Ali addressing Az Zubair: �By Allah I implore you, have not you heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) say to you: �You fight me being unjust to me?!� Az Zubair said: �Aye, Aye, I did but I forgot.�

Muslim narrated that the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) addressed Ammar Bin Yasir telling him: �You will be murdered by the oppressive lot.� Abi Al Bakhtari narrated: �Ammar before his death brought a dish of yogurt which made him smile. Some people asked him: What makes you laugh? He said: �The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) told me: �This yogurt will be the last thing I drink before my death, a short while after this event Ammar passed away. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) forecasted the mutiny of (Al Khavarij) saying: �A party will emerge from among my people, their speech will be good yet their deeds will be bad, they will summon the people to the Book of Allah though they themselves would have nothing to do with it. They read the Holy Qur�an but it does not exceed their breasts; they will leave religion as an arrow leaves the bow, never returning to it,� this Tradition was related by Anas. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) told Ali (peace be upon him): �People after my departure will betray you.� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) also told Ali (peace be upon him): �You after my departure will fight those who broke their oath and those who went astray and those who were deluded.� The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold too that Muaawiah would kill Hijr and his fellows. Ibn wahab related this from Abi Luhayah who narrates from Abi Al Aswad saying: �Muawiah presented himself to Ayshah who said: �What made you Kill Hijr and his lot? � she went on to say: �I heard the Messenger of Allah says that there will be so much killing that brings about the wrath of Allah and the natives of heaven� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold the slaughter of Al Hosain Bin Ali (peace be upon him). Ummu Anas narrates that the prophet (peace be upon him) foretold the slaughter of Al Hosain Bin Ali (peace be upon him) saying: �Gabriel said to him: Your people will kill you.� The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) also foretold that his household would be murdered. Al Hakeem Abu Abdullah Al Hafidh narrates from sayyed Al Abideen who narrates from his father citing his grand father who directly relates from the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) who said: �Jibraeel came to me and informed me that you are dead, each in a different way.� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold the killing of (�Ahlul Harrah), it happened as he has foretold. Ayoob Bin Basheer related that, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) went on a trip, he passed by a (Harrah) i.e a hot spot in a desert, and he halted for a while then said: �In this Harreh the best men of my nation in addition to my close ones and close apostles will be killed.� Anas said: �On the day of Harreh seven hundred men (who had memorized the Holy Qur�an on heart) including three of the prophet�s apostles at the year sixty three Al Hijreh were slaughtered. He said; �Something like that were his words about Ibn Abbas: �He id not going to die before he turns blind and gains a great knowledge�; it happened as he had foretold. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) visited Zayd Bin Arquam who was ill, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) said to him: �Never mind your illness, but you will outlive me and turn blind� Al Awzai related from Az Zahri who narrated from saeed Bin Al Mussaib, he said: �Ummus Salameh�s brother had a bady whom she named (Al Waleed). The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold his future by telling her to change his name into Abdullah for one day this nation will have a man called (Al Waleed) who will be worse than the pharaoh was to his people�. After that prophecy the people though that he was referring to (Al waleed Bin Abdul Malik; but soon they realized that it is (Al waleed Bin Yazed, who was meant by that prophecy. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants)-as (Abu saeed Al Khidri) related-foretold (Beni Abi Al Aass) and (Beni Umayeh)�s fate: (If Beni Al Aass became thirty men, they will corrupt Allah�s religion, enslave His servants, and inherit His money as if it is their own. A similar Tradition has been attributed to him (peace be upon him and his descendants) with a little alteration, (Beni Al Aass) were replaced by (Beni Al Hakam) and the following sentence was added: (And if they became four hundred ninety-nine men, they will perish as quickly as you chew a date fruit). Al Hosain (peace be upon him) narrated that the prophet in a dream saw (Benou Umayyeh) climbing his tribune one by one. Ali Bin Ibrahim relates another Tradition:

Hamzeh said to Quraish: �My nephew who never lies to me told me that Allah told him that He thye sublime has sent earth worms to eat the sheet you have hanged on the curtains of Al Ka'abeh, they devoured every sentence of injustice and oppression written in that document, exempting the name of Allah exclusively. Send somebody to check that sheet, if what have been foretold proved true; beware and turn back to Allah and give up your revolt. He went on to say: They sent for the document, lifting it from the curtains of Al Ka'abeh with forty seals on it, everybody lifted his own seal and unfolded the sheet to find only one phrase (O God, in Thy name I begin). Abu saeed Al Khidri related a long late about the battle of Badr, he said: �The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) took a handful of earth and threw it in the faces of the non-believers saying: �Be ugly thin faces�, all of them were busy scrubing their eyes; and Allah caused seventy of them be slaughtered; another seventy were taken captives, among whom was (Al Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib) whom the Messenger of Allah addressed: �RanSom yourself!� the man said: �I have no money.� The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �Where is the money you have given to your wife Ummul Fadhl when you were together alone in Mecca? Remember when you told her: If I get shot, give this money to my sons Al Fadhl, Abdullah and Quatham.� Al Abbas said: �Nobody knew this except me and Ummul Fadhl; he became a Muslim after that. In the story of invading beni Al Nadheer; the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) went to Kaab Bin Ashraf asking for a loan; the man said: �Welcome o Abu Al Quasim, most welcome,� the prophet sent some food for them pondering the idea of killing the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants); Jibraeel descended from heaven and told him (peace be upon him and his descendants) of their wicked intentions, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) stood up as if he is going to the toilet room (he guessed that they would not kill his companions as long as he is alive), thus he headed to (Al Medineh), on as he met some of Kaab�s fellows who understood what was going on; the Muslims at Kaab�s house too understood what was going on, so they returned back; Abdullah Bin suria-who was the most knowledgeable among the Jews said: �By the name of Allah, his God has informed him of your devilish conspiracy.

The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold the victory of Khaybar when he (peace be upon him and his descendants) gave the brigade to Abi Bakr then to Omar, both of whom could not withstand the pressure of the battle, the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �Tomorrow I shall give the brigade to some one who likes Allah and His Messenger and whom Allah and his Messenger do like; a man who never retreats unless Allah renders him victorious over them.� The Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) summoned Ali (peace be upon him) who had a sick eye then and could not even see the position of his feet; the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) spat in his eyes, Ali stood up with right open healthy eyes, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) gave him the brigade, and by the aid of Allah he conquered them and Killed their famous hero (Marhab). Anas Bin Malik relates: The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold the sad news of the slaughter of Ja'afar, tayed Bin Haritheh and Ibn Rawaheh while he (peace be upon him and his descendants) was in tears; Al Bukhari narrated this in his (As saheeh). Al Baghdadi in (Al Massabeeh) narrated:[269] �The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold the slaughter of Zayd, Ja'afar and Ibn Rouwaheh just before they were killed.� �He threw a handful of stones at the unbelievers and made them run away.� �He (peace be upon him and his descendants) threw a handful of earth at the unbelievers in Hunain, so they run away.� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold that a man-who was then standing next to him-is a man of hell; later the man was killed. �He (peace be upon him and his descendants) forecast the treasures of Khosro would come under our control.� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �Chosro will perish and no other Chosro will follow, Caeser will perish and no other Caeser will succeed; their wealth will be spent for the sake of Allah.� The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �By God, this matter i.e. Islam will be settled, so that any man can ride a horse from sannaa to Hadhramoot fearing nothing and nobody but Allah.� Ali (peace be upon him) relates so many prophecies foretold by the prophet, he relates his miracles as when he (peace be upon him and his descendants) invoked Allah�s wrath upon sobriquet, so his horse sunk into the earth, thereafter he (peace be upon him and his descendants) prayed for suraqueh, so his horse got out of earth. The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold that Fatimeh (peace be upon her) would be the first member of his family who will follow him to the other world. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) foretold the martyrdom of Amearul Muamineen Ali (peace be upon him), saying that his beard will be stained by the blood of his head; Sunnite reference books confirm this story through the Tradition of various apostles including: Abu Rafia Jabir Bin samrah, Ammar Bin yasir, Abdullah Bin Omar, the above mentioned narrators; check the book (Ihquaqul Haque). He (peace be upon him and his descendants) several times foretold the martyrdom of Al Hosain Bin Ali (peace be upon him); hereunder we shall refer only to the Sunnite reference books. Ibn Abbas had mentioned five Traditions:

The first one has been mentioned in thirty books. The second one has been mentioned in one book. The third one has been mentioned in one book. The fourth one has been mentioned in four books. The fifth one has been mentioned in twenty books. Ayisheh had mentioned three Traditions: The first one has been mentioned in eleven books. The second one has been mentioned in one book. The third one has been mentioned in ten books. Imameh has referred to three books. Zainab Bint Jahesh mentioned five books. Ummul Fadhl referred to fifteen books. Anas Bin Malik referred to eighteen books. Abu at Tufail mentioned one book. Al Musawwar Bin Mahzemeh mentioned one book. Ummu Salameh mentioned ten Traditions: The first one has been mentioned in thirteen books. The second has been mentioned in eleven books. The third has been mentioned in one book. The fourth one has been mentioned in six books. The fifth one has been mentioned in eleven books. The sixth one has been mentioned in five books. The seventh one has been mentioned in six books. The eight one has been mentioned in twenty-eight books. The ninth one has been mentioned in five books. The tenth one has been mentioned in three books. Ali Bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) referred to six Traditions. The first has been mentioned in five books. The second has been mentioned in nine books. The third has been mentioned in twenty-one books. The fourth has been mentioned in two books. The fifth has been mentioned in three books. The sixth has been mentioned in two books. Jabir Bin Abdullah referred to three books. Talha referred to three books. Muath referred to two Traditions. The first has been mentioned in two books. The second has been mentioned in five books. Anas Bin Al Harith referred to fourteen books. Saeed Bin Jamhan referred to two books. Asma Bint Umais referred to four books. Muawyeh Bin Abi Sufyan referred tone book. Al Hosain Bin Ali himself referred to nine books.

The titles of these books in addition to the page number are mentioned in the book of (Ihquaqul Haque).[270] Complement In Bihar Al Anwar the anthor mentions a number of Qur'anic verses that imply foretelling the unseen at the present time or the future and its interpretation. There are many verses that imply these news and secrets, as well as news that imply there inter petitioned; you may find them in so many chapters of this book-what we have already mentioned might be enough if he forsakes stubbornness; may Allah show everybody as of reason.[271] The number of miracles of the holy prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) Ibn shahr Ashoob in his (Manaquib) has mentioned some to the prophet�s miracles and has told that he (peace be upon him and his descendants) has some miracles that no one has such miracles. He numerated four thousands four hundred and forty miracles originally attributed to him (peace be upon him and his descendants). He has mentioned three thousand of them.[272] I say: There are so many books that refer to his miracles, (Ithbat al Hudat) refers to fifty eight books in this respect; the things we have mentioned are only few titles out of plenty.

The prophet�s biography and deeds, which approve his (peace be upon him and his descendants), prophesy: Some of these have been mentioned in the book (Muhammad the perfect ideal) ???I C??E? C??C?? : 1. Enduring different frames of harm (torturings): If we consider al Musttafa�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) firm determination and endurance for different forms of harm and suffering which the quashing unbelievers had in flecked on, we will not suspect even for a short instance that he (peace be upon him and his descendants) was faithful and honest to his claim, sure of what he is propagating. The harm which Quraish had in flecked on him, and his suffering from other tribes of Mecca in addition to what he had seen in At Taif which stained his slippers with blood; they also had instigated their wicked mobs to mistreat him; all this did not provoke his desire to revenge, if fact he (peace be upon him and his descendants) did nothing but said: �O� God! To thee I disclose my weak potency, my disability and the people�s negligence of me� � then he said: �Yet, if thou are not angry with me, I care not for these dies encouragements." This is clear evidence, which asserts the righteousness of his mission taking over his whole being, subsequently the agony, disregard, de fianc�, harm and disrespect he suffered seemed nothing to him. Reasonably, anybody who might have been suspicious about the righteousness of his mission would not have endured those tireSome sufferings.[273] 2. His reputation for good manners, which characterized his (peace be upon him and his descendants) childhood (before his prophas) Before carrying on his mission, he (peace be upon him and his descendants) has been well known among his sect of people for his good manners, and gracious qualities to the degree he was called (The Honest). His people had not known him to lie or misbehave or make an error even for once. Those who were close to him were impressed by his words, deeds and moves in a way that made them certain of his honest in telling his Divine revelation; one of the Arabs on seeing him (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �By Allah I swear this face is not the face of a liar.� Consider what Hierarchies said to Abi Sufyan and his lot of unbelievers at the time being: �Did you accuse Muhammad of being a liar before his last claim?� They said: �NO� lie has never been a liar.�

Hierarchies said: If he had not been lying to people, how should he lie to Allah?[274]

Those who had acquaintance with him (peace be upon him and his descendants) and those who fell under the influence of his message realized that he has been the most honest man to people as well as the most merciful to them. He never said but the truth and never did but what was right. Therefore, when he came to (Khadijeh) his wife and related to her the where abouts of the revelation adding (I was worried about myself); she who was very well acquainted with his straight forward virtuous manners said: �By Allah I swear He will never disgrace you, you keep intouch with you kinsmen, you tell the truth, you endure everybody, you welcome your guests, you help the poor, and you assist those who are in trouble. Those who had acquaintance with him (peace be upon him and his descendants) and those who fell under the influence of his message realized that he was the most honest man to people as well as the most merciful to them. He never said but the truth and never did but what was right. Therefore, when he came to (Khadijeh) his wife and related to her the where abouts of the revelation adding (I was worried about myself); she-who was very well acquainted with his straight forward virtuous manners said: �By Allah I swear He will never disgrace you, you keep intouch with you kinsmen, you tell the truth, you endure everybody, you welcome your guests, you help the poor, and you assist those who are in trouble. Whoever contemplates the message of Mohammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) will reach the conclusion that this can only be held by the most honest and compassionate man among people; for such a mission can never be carried out by liar who cheats and fabricates stories by the name of Allah.[275] 3. Muhammad�s renunciation of worldly pleasures and his subservience to Allah He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was modest in his living, food, clothes and the rest of his affairs, his normal food was bread and plain water, he used to patch his clothes, milk his lamb, he spent his nights in his supplications and prayers, his days in propagating Allah�s religion. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was God fearing, vigil keeping and continuously obedient, rather his obedience matches his devotion and fear, for he knew his God closely. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) prays for long hours staying vigil most of the night his strength vises from his self-certitude, satisfaction is his habit, knowledge is his capital, obedience is the best of his expectations, yearning for God is his method, thinking is his companion, confidence is his treasure, piety is his reSource of pride, reason keeps his company, Al Jihad (the Holy war) is his reSource of pleasure, knowledge is his weapon, his peace is in prayer and his heart best desire is the praise and glorification of God whom there is no god but Him.[276] 4. As he (peace be upon him and his descendants) maintained praises for his God attributing (every grace) to Him: Al Mustafa (peace be upon him and his descendants) spent his life fearing and remembering Allah in every thing he does. If any thing good happens to him (peace be upon him and his descendants) he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah by whose grace good deeds are done.� If any thing bad happened to him (peace be upon him and his descendants) he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah for everything.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) inteded to do something he would say: �O� God! Thou decide my omen for me! And Thou decide my choice� if he want to travel he would say: O� God! By thy name I lay my body, and by the name I raise it.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) woke up he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah who revived us after making us die; to him we shall be restored.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) put on a new dress he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah who has given me a decoration for my life.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) eats something he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah who fed us and quenched our thirst and made us Muslims.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) drinks something he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah who made the water clean and sweet by his mercy, never making it stale and brackish for our sins,� His mercy never making it stale and brackish for our sins.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) broke his fasting he would say: �Praise and thanks are due to Allah who helped me so that I would fast, and bestowed His grace on me so that would break my fasting.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) turns in his bed at night he would say: �There is no God but Allah the nly One, the Victor, Lord of the earth and heavens and what is in between them, the Almighty and the More Forgiver.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) suddenly was a wakened at night he would say; �O� God! Forgive me, have mercy on me and guide me to the best straight path.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) is afraid of some people he would say: �O God! May you kill them; and to thee we seek refuge from their wicked plans.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) raised an eye to heaven he would say: �O Thou Who shifts the beliefs of people, fix my heart to Thy obedience.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) made an oath he would say: �By the One Who possesses Muhammad�s soul.� If he (peace be upon him and his descendants) somehow becomes worried he would say: �The Creator is enough for me, I do not need the creature.

The Donor is enough for me; I do not need the others. The One Who is enough for me is enough for me; for me Allah is sufficient and He is the best Disposer of affairs.� From what we have surveyed we conclude that the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) in all his affairs had an eye on Allah, only from Him does he (peace be upon him and his descendants) requests aid, never seeing himself or anybody else mighty and powerful. 5. Himself above human spite: After the things that had befallen him (peace be upon him and his descendants) in Uhud, his injury, his broken tooth, and the things he had seen which could have removed reason from any other wise man he (peace be upon him and his descendants) did not say a word to his people, he only apologized on their behalf to God: �O God! Forgive my people for they are ignorant. 6. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) concern about the happiness of people: He was concerned about making the people happy, both in this life and in the hereafter; as a result of which Allah the sublime revealed to him: [let not thy soul go out (in vain) sighing after them.][277] Scientifically and reasonably speaking, the man who is about to perish for the sake of making the others happy, can never withhold a corrupt soul, rather his soul should be wholly dedicated to God. 7. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) keen determination to purify the soul from human abomination and bohemian lusts. 8. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) diagnosis of social diseases and they remedy Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) has been given an accurate knowledge of man and his where about, a knowledge incomparable to any other knowledge; consequently he had drawn for every man the path that suits him. The great English philosopher Thomas Carlyle in his book (The heroes) P.12 of the Arabic translation, about prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) wrote: it became really shameful for any civilized modern man at this age to listen to those who claim that Islam as a religion is lie and Muhammad is a fraud and an imposter. It is high to fight such a shameful claim, for the message that the Messenger brought to convert people has become a light house all along twelve centuries for about two hundred million Muslims).

At P.25 of the translated version we read: (Muhammad�s ignorance of ancient and modern knowledge never did him any harms, for him self (peace be upon him and his descendants) was knowledgeable, Muhammad never quoted or extracted any thing from any other human being). 9. His (peace be upon him and his descendants) perfect grace: 1. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was majestic and impressive, to the degree that the envoys of Chosro were shaken by his presence although they were accustomed to meet those great and mighty kings of their age. 2. Devotion to him (peace be upon him and his descendants) took over the hearts of people, so that his apostle used to love 3. His more than they love their fathers and sons. People�s hearts teded to follow him and submitted to his command. 4. He had a super brain, superior reSolution as well as a clear common sense. 5. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) resumed firm steadiness in difficulties, and his soul maintained its calmness whatever the situations might shift, they never confuse him; he never surrenders to any dilemma (be it great or small). 6. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) had never been interested in the pleasures of the mundane world. 7. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was modest to the others though they were his proponents. 8. Allah inspired him with patience and reverence. 9. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was a man of his word who keeps his promises. 10. The wisdom and knowledge he maintained were incredible. 11. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) never missed any ancient tales of the prophets as well as the other dispatches of the world (be they minor or major. 12. The Divine order he (peace be upon him and his descendants) brought was comprehensive. He himself had referred to this when he described himself as (I have been given the essence of knowledge (Jawamia Al Kalim). 13. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) instructed the people to do only good deeds calling them to maintain the best manners. 14. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) was clear, sighted, ready to answer any question, never embarrassed, never embarrassed, and never short handed, never losing any discussion. 15. He (peace be upon him and his descendants) instructed his people to be moderated, because he did not want to stick them to the world's pleasures as the Jews did, nor did he want them to reject the world as the Christians did. This has been a list of the prophet�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) example and biography, which confirms the righteousness of his mission, none; Muslims have always approved his mission.[278] The Old and New Testament Approve Muhammad�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) Prophethood [Those who follow the apostle, the unlettered prophet whom they find mentioned in their won (scriptures), in the Law and the Gospel.][279] The Law and the Gospel, which we have now are not the ones revealed to Musa and Jesus (peace be upon him), they witnessed a lot of alteration and distortion; yet they still contain some verses that authenticate the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants), hereunder we mention some of them.

The Old Testament (I appoint a prophet from among his brothers similar to thee; put my word in his tongue so he tells them whatever I command him.)[280] I say, our prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) is meant by this verse for he is one of the progeny of Ismail, those who were brothers to the children of Israel. (God come from sainai, shining on them from sair, gleaming from the mountain of Faran and descending from the heights of Jerusalem.)[281] I say: If is well known that the mountain of Faran is the mountain of Haraa on the outskirt of Mecca where the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) saw the revelation. Further, everybody knows that Musa (peace be upon him) had his revelation in sainai: Jesus (peace be upon him) had his revelation on the mountain of Faran which is the mountain of Haraa on the outskirts of Mecca as Arab historians, and interpreters of the (Law) agreed. From prophet Haiququ�s Book we quote a verse: (God came from Taiman, the Holy one came from the mountain of Faran, His nectar (exalted be His supremacy covered heaven and the earth was filled with His supplications.)[282] (For I have heard what you said about Ismail have Ibliss him and make him fertile and multiply him, he will baged twelve lords and I shall make him a big nation.)[283] In a verse from jushwa�s Book there has been a forthright reference to Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) who collects tribute prophet whom out of their spite they accuse of madness.[284] The author of (Manquool Al Redhai) cites the following verse in Hebrew:

 

This verse for tells that Muhammad (peace be upon him and his descendants) takes Jezyah (tribute) from the Jews; humiliation will befall them for their wicked deeds-as it has been revealed in the Qur'an. [Until they pay the Jezyah (tribute) with willing submission and feel they subdued.] This verse refers to other characteristics that pertainto the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) (as they claim), such as attributing in sanity to him. [They say he is insane.] This verse too reveals that they hurt him (peace be upon him and his descendants) at the House of Allah, which is also characteristic of him (peace be upon him and his descendants), for they really hurt him at the house of Allah (i.e. Mica) when they made a conspiracy to kill him; subsequently he secretly immigrated to Al Medinah at night. (Manquool Ar Redhai) narrates: �Rabi Huieem Waytal who was a Jewish scholar in his book (Ass Haieem) wrote; this verse foretells about the promised prophet Muhammad Bin Abdullah. The author also mentions some interpreters who had translated the expression (Muhammad Lukshiam) in this verse to the expression (the house silver) adding: �That was unfair, for if was true, the right expression would have been (Muhammadi Keshiam) without adding the letter (L). Further he mentions that context of the verse connotes that the item (Muhammad) is employed as a noun and not as an adjective, which means: Muhammad takes silver (i.e. tribute or Jezyah) from the Jews.[285] John's Bible (Youhanna): [286] (Whenever the mourner arrives-this expression is given as a translation for the Geek word (Paraclete), the one whom I send for you from the Father, the Holy spirit that emerges from the father will witness for me.)[287] (I request the Father to give you a mourner � this expression is given you as a translation for the Greek word (Paraclete) � another mourner � who will stay with you for ever).[288] John�s Bible: (But I tell you the truth, it is better for you that I set out, for if not the mourner�an expression given as a translation for the Greek word �paraclete� � will never come to you, but if I go o shall for either of a three reasons a sin, a loyalty and a religion, but it is sin, for they will not have faith in me; award, for I amgoing to my Father and where you will never see me too. Religion for the master of this world has been converted to religion. I have so many other things too of which I never tell you; now perhaps you can not endure anything; but when the Divine Truth comes He will lead you to the whole truth, for He does not say what He will for tell event that will came true, He glorifies Me, for He takes from what is mine and tells you).[289] John�s Bible: (He has narrated that the Father sends �Paraclete� who will teach you everything.)[290] I say the word �paraclete� mentioned above has been extracted from the sriani Bible, and translated into Arabic (in the Bible at hand today) means-the mourner; in Persian too it has been translated to give the same sense of the word, but what has been intentioned in the verses above was �Paraclete� in Greek Bible; and �praklyte� in sriani Bible, which means in Arabic Ahmad.The Greek word for (mourner) is �prakalon�. Professor David Archbishop of the Roman Catholics representative of Kildani Christians in his book which has written in English and translated into Persian under the title of (Muhammad in the Law and the Bible) said:[291] The Greek word for (mourner) is �Prakalon�; while the word �paraclete�, which was mentioned. In the Bible in the verses, we have quoted by no way means (mourner). Then he said: �The accurate meaning of the word �paraclete� in Greek is (Ahmad), and to avoid prolonged elaboration, we shall not bring whatever has been brought I Greek books and dictionaries, who wishes to know more may refer himself to anyone of them. In the saurian version of the Bible too� the word: �paraklyte� as well as in the Aramaic version the words of "Mahmadah" and "Hameedah" are Muhammad and Ahmad in Arabic version.[292]

Discussions of Imamat (leadership) Proving the leadership of twelve Imams on the whole nations on besides of Allah and His Messenger

What is the Imamat (leadership)? And who is the Imam? The Imamat (leadership): It is a Divine position that determined by Allah, it is a promise from Allah the Almighty as told To Ibrahim (peace be upon him): [He said: I shall make thee an Imam to the nations, He pleaded: �And also Imams from my offspring! He answered: �But My promise is not within the reach of evil doers.�][293] Imamat (Leadership) as the prophethood is a Divine position that is determined by Allah the Almighty undoubtedly. There is no meaning and value to the caliph of prophet that has been appointed by the people; as the people can�t appoint the prophet, they can�t select his succession too. Succession to prophethood is it decided by people is meaningless; they cannot decide who their prophet is; they too cannot decide who their Imam is. In short: succession to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) is not presidency of a republic that should be attained through the consent of people (as Abu Bakr claimed after the prophets (peace be upon him and his descendants) death), rather the successor ought to be appointed by Allah and his Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants). As Musa told to Haroon: [Act for me amongst my people], our prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) too said to Ali (peace be upon him) in the famous widely transmitted.][294] The Tradition about the prestige of Ali (peace be upon him) to the Holy prphet is same asHaroon was to Musa, but no prophet will succeed him). Thus the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) appointed (Ali) (peace be upon him) to succeed him, attributing to him whatever Haroon meant to Musa, except in relation to prophethood, declaring that Ali is not a prophet-unlike Haroon-, for no prophet will succeed him, for he is the seal of prophets. In short: Imamat (leadership) is (guardianship or friendship); it is parallel to friendship to Allah and guardianship on the will of the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) as the sublime said: [Your (real) Custodians are (no less than) God, his Messenger and the (fellowship of) believers, those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship).][295] Sunnite reference books confirm that this verse was revealed to honor Ali (peace be upon him), the pronoun addressed in it refers to him-this is a special friendship that is not similar to the relationship between the believers as Allah the sublime describes it: [The believers, men and women, are protectors of one another.][296] The kind of relation the first verse discloses is different form the other kind of relation referred to the second verse otherwise the first one would not have referred to those who offer prayers and pay alms regularly while they bow down humbly (in worship). The Imam is a guide who leads the nation after the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants). Allah the sublime said: [But thou is truly a warner and there is a guide for every sect.][297]

Ibn Abbass in one of the Sunnite interpretations of the Holy Qur'an said: "When this verse was revealed to the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) he put his hand on his chest and said: �I am the warmer and to every people there is a guide). He then put his hands on Ali�s shoulder and said: (O� Ali! You are the guide; by means of you those who look for conversion will find their way after me").[298] The Imam is Allah�s argument on earth after the prophet lest somebody may say: �If ever you have sent a warring Messenger to us, he would have become a guide to us so that we follow your verses, and otherwise we would be disgraced and humiliated. The Imam holds the prophets knowledge that was revealed to him; he substitutes the prophet and instructs the people about the statutes of the Divine Law and the Divine Knowledge; Allah the sublime said: [Is then He Who gives guidance to truth more worthy to be followed or he who finds no guidance (himself) unless he is guided? What then is the matter with you? How do you judge?][299] The Imam was Ameerul Muamineen Ali Bin Abi Talib who was the most knowledgably man in the Islamic world (as both sects Sunnite and Shiite unanimously agreed); he has inherited the knowledge and wisdom of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) whose Tradition which is authenticated by the Sunnites discloses: �I am the city of knowledge whose gate is Ali, he who seeks knowledge let him enter the city through its gate.� After Ali (peace be upon him) the infallible Imams (who descend from the progeny of Muhammad) will succeed, the following prophetic Tradition which confirmed by both sects given evidence for this: (I have left for you two most valuable legacies, the book of Allah, and my progeny (Etreh), beware how you will treat both of them after me they will not part from each other until the Day of Judgment). They are converted guides whom the Messenger (peace be upon him and his descendants) of Allah will announce their Imamat (leadership) and infallibility. They are identical to the description Allah has mode of Ibrahim�s progeny: [And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our command, and We sent them inspiration to do good deeds, to establish regular charity; and they constantly served Us; and they constantly served Us (and only Us).][300]

They are as Allah the sublime describes them:

[And those who pray our Lord! Grant unto us wives and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes and give us (the grace) to lead the righteous).][301] Abu Bakr Bin Muamin in (Risalet Al Etiquad) relates from saeed Bin Jubair who narrates from Abdullah Bin Ommar who said: �By Allah I swear, this verse was revealed for Ali�s honor when he recited that prayer.� One of these infallible Imams is Al Mahdi may Allah hasten his reappearance who will fill the earth with justice and moderation after it was filled with injustice and tyranny as well known texts attributed to the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) had emphasized.
Allah the sublime said: [Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous deeds that he will certainly grant them in earth inheritance of power.][302]

The sublime also said: [And We wish to be gracious to those who were being depressed on earth, to make them leaders (in faith) and make them heirs.][303] The condition of infallibility in Imamat (Leadership): Allah the sublime told Ibrahim (peace be upon him): [He said: I shall make thee an Imam to the nations. He pleaded: What about my offspring! He (God) answered: But My promise is not within the reach of evildoers.][304]*[305] This verse is forthright evidence, which confirms that Imamat is necessarily conditioned with the infelliblity, Allah asserts this mean through the Divine Text: [Anyone who transgresses the limits of Allah, does verily wrong himself.][306] The sublime also said: [If anyone does transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such perSons do themselves wrong (as well as other).][307] This verse is forthright evidence, which confirms that Imamat (leadership) is necessarily conditioned to infallibility� Allah asserts this mean through the Divine texts: Hence, the Divine Imamat (leadership) after the death of the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) became respectively limited to his progeny, for nobody else maintains any infallibility; the following verse certifies that Ali, Al Hasan and Al Hosain (peace be upon him) are infallible: [And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the family (progeny) and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.][308] This is forthright evidence that members of the progeny are infallible. To elaborate on this we say that the verse frankly discloses Allah�s will to remove abomination from the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) and the progeny (peace be upon him), the sublime�s will never fail his intention for he said: [Verily, when He inteds a thing, His command is �be� so it is.][309] His command responds to his formative will � and never to his legislative will which pertains to the servants of God who are subjects to his command. The verse refers to an act of Allah the Almighty.

The sublime said:

[And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye member of the family and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.][310] Added to this, Allah�s legislative will which results into commanding man to remove material dirt does not pertainto the progeny (peace be upon him) exclusively; rather it pertains to all servants of God. Definitely, the connotation of the verse does not pertainto material facial abomination; rather it pertains to the internal abomination (polytheism, doubt, disbelief, sins, disobedience to God, and whatever that may be considered part of abomination). If somebody suggests that the expression (to remove abomination) probably means that the sublime has forgiven their sins, I say; �Forgiveness does not remove the abomination that stains the sinner�s soul, it only removes the penalty from him, forgiving a sin does not necessitate its transference into something else, for, forgiveness only takes place after committing a sin, and a sinner who has made a sin can never be purified again, forgiveness occurs after the deed, or else the sin � as a title � would be out of context. The gracious verse- by means of its structural and formative syntax signifies that the progeny (peace be upon him) are infallible from any kind of abomination. Furthermore, the expression (progeny of Muhammad) does not refer to the prophet�s (peace be upon him and his descendants) women, for the pronoun employed at the verse is a masculine one, added to this, the other pronouns employed prior to it are feminine one�s pertaining to the prophet�s women, all of the verses that came into the context address the prophet�s women except this one, it address the progeny. We have authenticated Traditions from the prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) that this verse was revealed in honor of Ali, Fatimeh (peace be upon her), Al Hasan and Al Hosain (peace be upon him); one of these asserts that this verse revealed at Ummu Salameh�s residence, she said: �O Messenger of Allah! Am I part of the progeny?� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �you are for the better) i.e. (you are not part of them but you're thereafter will be better). I has been narrated that this verse refers to all the twelve infallible member of progeny (peace be upon him), and when somebody claims that it pertains to Ali, Fatimeh (peace be upon her), Al Hasan and Al Hosain exclusively, we answer that it pertains to them among the other infallible one because it has been revealed when they were alive. (Faraydul simathain) is a Sunnite book, it narrates from sulaim Bin Quais Relating what had taken place between Ali (peace be upon him) and the (Ansaar) during the reign of Othman; after along Tradition the author say: �Ali said: �O� people! Do you know when Allah revealed the verse? [And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, members of the family, and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.][311] The prophet (peace be upon him and his descendants) gathered us (me, Fatimmeh, and two sons Al Hasan and Al Hosain) he threw a cloak on us and said: �O� God! These are my family and my kids, whatever hurts them hurts me, and whatever harms them harms me, whatever embarrass them embarrasses me, so remove all abomination from them and make them pure and spotless. Ummu Salameh said: �You are for the better, this verse pertains to me, my daughter, my brother Ali Bin Abi Talib, my two sons (from Ali and Fatimeh (peace be upon her)) and to nine of Al Hosain�s descendants exclusively; nobody else is to join our clique�) all attedants said: �We testify that Ummu Salameh had narrated this to us, and we have asked the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) about it, he confirmed what Ummu Salameh had said. (Kifayatul Athar) is a Shiite book; it narrates that Ali Bin Muhammad said: Haroon Bin Musa Al Telkabari said: Isa Bin Musa Al Hushmi who was at (Sura Man Raa) samara said: my father narrated from his father Ali (peace be upon him) who said: �I visited the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) at Ummu Salameh�s residence when the verse: [And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the family, and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.][312] Was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �O� Ali! This verse is revealed to Honor you and my two grandsons and the other Imams who descend from them.� I said: �O� Messenger of Allah! How many Imams succeed me?� He (peace be upon him and his descendants) said: �you Ali, then your two sons Al Hasan and Al Hosain, after who his son Ali follows, after Ali his son Ali follows, after Ali his son Muhammad follows, after Muhammad his son Ali follows, after Ali his son Al Hasan will succeed; thus I have found their manes inscribed on the foot of the Throne, I have asked Allah the sublime and Exalted about these manes, He said: �O� Muhammad! These are the Imams who succeed you, all of them are infallible and purified, and their foes are damned.�[313]

Textual chains of some prophetic Traditions, which certify that the verse of Purification (At Tatheer) pertains to Ali, Fatimeh (peace be upon her), Al Hasan and Al Hosain (peace be upon them) as referred the Sunnite books 1. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Omar Bin Atiyeh who narrates from Abi saeed Al Khidri relating from Ummu Salameh (Tareekh Baghdad), Vol.9, P.126. 2. A chain of Tradition which ends with Al Hosain Bin Al Hasan who narrates form Abi saeed Al Khidri relating from Ummu Salameh (TraeeKh Baqhdad), Vol.9, P.126. 3. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Hisham Bin salem who narrates from Wahab Bin Abdullah relating from Ummu Salameh (Al Muajam Al Kabeer), P.134. 4. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Abdul Malik Bin sulaiman who narrates from Atta relating from Ummu Salameh (Al Muajamul Kabeer), P.134. 5. A chain of Tradition, which ends with shareek Bin Nimr who narrates from Atta relating from Ummu Salameh (Maalimul Tanzeel), P.213. 6. A chain of Tradition which ends with Muhammad Bin sawqueh who Tradition from someone relating from Ummu Salameh (AKhlaqul Mubin), P.116. 7. A chain of Tradition which ends with (Abdullah Bin Abi Rabah) who narrates from someone relating from Ummu Salameh (Tafseerul Thaalibi) (manuscript). 8. A chain of narrates from Ummu Salameh (Katheer), V.3, and P.483. 9. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Atiah who narrates from his father relating from Ummu Salameh (Tafseer Ibn Kuthair, V.3, P.483. 10. A chain of Tradition, which ends with shahr Bin Hawshab who narrates from Ummu Salameh (Tafseer Ibn Katheer), V.3, and P.483. 11. A chain of Tradition, which ends with, ends Sufyan Bin Zayd who narrates from shaher Bin Hawshab relating from Ummu Salameh (Saheehul Tirmizy), V.13, and P.248. 12. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Zabeed who narrates from shahr Bin Hawshab relating from Ummu Salameh (Mawzihul Awham), V.2, P.281. 13. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Abdul Hameed Bin Bahram who narrates from shahr Bin Hawshab relating from Ummu Salameh (Musnad Ahmad), V.6.P.298. 14. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Dawood Bin Abi Awf who narrates from shahr Bin Hawsheb relating from Ummu Salameh (Al Quawl Al Fasl), V.2, and P.177. 15. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Al Achlah who narrates from shahr Bin Hausheb relating from Ummu Salameh (Al Quawl Al Fasl), V.2, P.175. 16. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Athal who narrates from shahr Bin Hawsheb Relating from Ummu Salameh (TarreKhul Bukhari), V.1, P.70. 17. A chain of Tradition, which ends with shuaib Bin Al Maneea who narrates from shahr Bin Hawsheb relating from Ummu Salameh (Tareekhul Bukhari), V.1, P.70. 18. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Ja'afar Bin Abdul Rahman who narrates from Al Hakam Bin saeed relating from Ummu Salameh (Tareekhul Bukhari), V.1, P.70. 19. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Muhammad Bin shireen who narrates from Abi Hurayreh relating from Ummu Salameh (Tafseer Jamia Al Bayan), V.1, and P.22. 20. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Awam Bin Haushat who narrates from his cousin relating from Ayisheh (Al Quawl Al Fasl), V.2, P.215. 21. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Mus'aab Bin shaybeh who narrates from safiyeh relating from Ayisheh, (Al sunanul Kubra), V.2, P.149. 22. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Al Awzai who narrates from Abi Ammar who narrates from Wathelah Bin Al Assqua (Al Mustadrik), V.2, P.152. 23. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Abdul Rahman Bin Amro who narrates from shedad Bin Abdullah relating from Wathelah Bin Al Assqua (seer Alam Al Nubala), V.3, and P.212. 24. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Al Amash who narrates from Atiyeh relating from Abi saeed Al Khidri (Jamea Al Bayan), V.6, P.22. 25. A chain of Tradition, which ends with Abi Al Hijaf w