Introduction
A head, despite the oppression is high, an eye in which mingled blood and tears, tears to wash the mankind from the yoke of submission, a flag fluttering above the crowd, a moon dawning permanently and a sacred tomb of the saints visited by millions, surrounded by the souls and hearts of the faithful... "Peace be on you, O the pious obedient servant of Allah, His Messenger, Commander of the Faithful, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussayn."
Qamar [moon of] Bani Hashem. The protector of the veil of Al-Fawatem [surname given to the women of Ahl Al-Bayt as their mother is Lady Fatima]. One of the great personalities of the Ummah [nation], embodying generosity, altruism, determination and mettle. His matter is apparent to the horizons, and mentioning him is a must between exploits' students. His martyrdom is fragrant and replete with pearls and gems. He embodied in Karbala the meaning of the glory and pride, and he became a symbol of altruism, brotherhood and trustworthiness. The divine wisdom wanted that Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) send him to the Euphrates, so he has his own shrine to witness on the injustice of the tyranny and as a cry for justice and faith over the ages and times, his dome reflects his vigor and loftiness, and two minarets like two palms praying for the sky's mercy and generosity.
Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) emerged in the Islamic history as the greatest leader thanks to his heroism and all his other morals that are the finest in all earth languages.
On the day of At-Taf, Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) has shown enormous resilience and indescribable solid will, and he was with his equanimity and strong resolve alone, a whole army that has frightened the army of Ibn Ziyad, and he has defeated them psychologically like he defeated them in the fields of war, as the heroism of Aba Al-Fadl was and still the example in the battlefields throughout the times.
Imam As-Sadeq (peace be upon him) testified about the great morals of Aba Al-Fadl saying: "Our uncle Al-Abbas had sharp insight and firm faith" and his courage is a source of pride not only for Muslims, but for all those who are subject to humanity's great morals.
He (peace be upon him) was an example of the noble qualities, he embodied the magnanimity, nobility, loyalty and sympathy, he was there for his brother Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) during the days of major ordeal, he ransomed him with his soul and protected him with his heart, in a way that only those whose heart is filled with faith can do.
In his behavior with his brother Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) embodied the real sincere Islamic brotherhood, and gave us a lesson in all its values and ideals, in his attitude, righteousness and goodness. And the finest scene of compassion he presented, was when he arrived to the water on the day of At-Taff, he took a bit of water in his palms to drink, as he was suffering from severe thirst, but he remembered the thirst of his brother Imam Al-Hussayn and of the children of Ahl Al-Bayt (peace be upon them), his honor and loftiness pushed him to let the water flow from between his hands... Browse the history of all nations and people, can you find such sincere brotherhood?! Look into the nobles' records in the whole world, have you ever seen such nobility and such altruism?
Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) was martyred for the highest principles, which slogan was raised by his brother Abu Al-Ahrar, Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), which mostly were the ruling of the Holy Quran, spreading justice and distributing the goods of earth among all without differentiation.
He (peace be upon him) was martyred in order to re-give to the Muslim his dignity and freedom, to disseminate Islam's mercy among people, and its major grace that aimed the eradication of oppression and injustice, and to build a society without any shadow of panic or fear.
Aba Al-Fadel Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) carried the beacon of freedom and dignity, and led the martyrs' convoys to the squares of honor, pride and victory of the Islamic peoples, who were straining under the weight of oppression and injustice.
He (peace be upon him) went to the Jihad fields in order to raise high the word of the Almighty God, which is the complete approach of the dignified life among people.
Peace be upon You O Aba Al-Fadl! As In your life like in your martyrdom, you gather all the humanity values, and it is sufficient for you that alone you were the great model for the martyrs of At-Taf who occupied the summit of honor and glory in the world of Arabs and of Islam.
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him)
He is Al-Abbas son of the Commander of the Faithful Ali son of Abi Taleb son of Abd Al-Muttalib son of Ibn Hashim son of Abd Manaf son of Qusay son of Kilab son of Murrah son of Ka'b son of Lu'ay son of Ghalib son of Fihr son of Malik son Nidhr son of Kinanah son of Khuzaymah son of Mudrikah son of Ilyas son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'd son of Adnan.
The Holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) has said: "If you arrive in my ancestors' line to Adnan, stop."
Maybe it is because they are not easy to pronounce and mentioning their names without knowing them will be a kind of underestimation of these great personalities, as for sure they were all purified from all kinds of evil or any idol worship, as they were all either prophets or guardians as it is stated in the Holy Quran that all parents of the Holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) were great God's worshippers.
Thing confirmed by the Almighty God when said in His holy Book: {And your movement in those who prostrate.} (26:219), noting that the name of Prophet Ibrahim [Abraham] (peace be upon him) was Tarekh and not Aazar, who was his uncle according to some historians, and called an uncle "Father" was common in the history like it is stated in the Holy Quran: {Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob, when he said to his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We will worship your God and the God of your fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac - one God. And we are Muslims [in submission] to Him."} (2:133) and called prophet Isma'eel [Ishmael] (peace be upon him) "father" even though he wasn't a father to Prophet Ya'cub [Jacob] (peace be upon him), but his paternal uncle, like the Holy Quran called Ibrahim "father" and he is the grandfather.
Some historians state that Aazar is the grandfather of prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) from his mother. Another proof that he's not his real father from the Holy Quran: { when Abraham said to his father Aazar..} (6:74) here he (peace be upon him) called him by his name, if he was his father, there would be no need of adding the name.
The Apostle of God (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) stated the purity of his fathers from abomination of ignorance and disbelief, saying: " “We were some bodies of light [noor]. When Allah desired to form us, He turned us into a column of light and put it in the loins of Adam, this light was shining in his forehead. Then it was transferred to his guardian Sheeth, and took from him the oath of allegiance to only put this light in the wombs of the purified women, Thereafter He continued to transfer it from loins of best of fathers to wombs of the purified venerated mothers, always keeping us away from impurity, polytheism and adultery. Until we were brought to the loins of Abdul Muttalib, that light was divided into two. Allah put one half of it in the loins of Abdullah and was transferred to the womb of Aaminah, and the other half in that of Abu Talib then entered the womb of Fatima bint Asad."
As for "Adnan", he used to preach about the appearance of the Holy Prophet, saying that he is one of his descendants and recommended to follow him.
His son "Ma'd" was leader of wars against Bani Israel of those who deviated from monotheism [Tawhid], and he he used to won all those he fought. And because he was following the religion of prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him), the Almighty God ordered Irmiyah [Jeremiah] to take him with him on Buraq to avoid being hit by the curse of Nebuchadnezzar, the almighty told Irmiya: "From his loins, I will bring out a noble prophet who will be the seal of Prophets." So, he carried him to the land of Sham until the strife subsided with the death of Nebuchadnezzar.
As for "Nizar" his father gave him this name as when he looked at the light of prophecy shining from his forehead, he was delighted and gave people food and said: "His right is enlightened."
It is narrated the prohibition of cursing Rabi'a and Mudar as they are believers, and from the words of Mudar: "He who sows evil, will reap remorse."
"Ilyas son of Mudar" is the leader of his tribe and the master of his clan, and he was the first who guided the cattle to the sacred house, and the first who controlled the shrine [maqam] of Ibrahim after that the House sinked in the time of Noah, and he was a monotheist believer, and it is narrated the prohibition of cursing him. Mudrikah son of Ilyas inherited the glory anf pride of his fathers, and he transmitted the light of the Prophet Mohammad (prayers and Allah's peace be upon im and his holy Household).
"Kinanah" was a great Sheikh, good looking and Arabs were coming to his for his knowledge and virtues, he was saying: "Time has come that a prophet will come from Mecca, his name is Ahmad, calling to God and to righteousness, goodness and good morals, follow him and your honor and glory will increase, and do not disown what he says as it is the Right." It is narrated that he said: "It is better an image that contraries the information, tricked with its beauty and tested by the ugliness of its deed, so beware and demand for the information." And he was disdained to eat alone.
His son Nidhr "Quraysh for the scholars", as none of his ancestors is called Qurashi, and his children like Malik and Fihr are called so, therefore, he who is son of Nidhr is Qurashi and he who is not his son is not Qurashi.
As for "Fihr", he was monotheist and has fought Hassaan son of Abd Kilal when he came by donkeys from Yemen to take the stones of Kaaba to build a house in Yemen for people to visit, and Fihr won and Hassaan was defeated and captured for three years, until he redeemed himself with lot of money and came out but died between Mecca and Yemen. And Fihr was then exalted by the Arabs, especially with the light in his forehead. It is narrated that he said to his son Ghalib: "Little in your hand makes you richer than what can make your face down even if you own it."
Ka'b son of Lu'ay was constantly mentioning the coming prophet, telling Quraysh that he is from his progeny and ordered them to follow him, saying: "Listen and be aware, learn to know and open your mind to understand, a dark night, a quiet day, the earth is a resting place, mountains are pegs and the first are like the last ones, all to scourge, so be good to your kinship, amend your conditions. Have you ever seen in front of you the perished returning or the dead coming back? And the doubt is the contrary of what you say, embellish your sacred house, ennoble it, stick to it and never leave it, as there will be a great tidings and from it a noble prophet will appear, and said:
نهارٌ وليلٌ واختلاف حوادث ... سواءٌ عَلينا حلوُها ومريرُها
يؤوبان بالأَحداثِ حتّى تأوّبا... وبالنعمِ الضافي علينا ستُورها
على غفلة يأتِي النّبي محمّد... فيُخبر أخباراً صدوقاً خبيرها
Then said:
يَاليتني شاهِد فَحْواء دعوتهِ... حتّى العشيرةِ تبغي الحقّ خُذلانا ..."
He was the first who called Friday by Jomo'a as members of Quraysh gathered in it.
Kilab son of Murrah the third grandfather of Aaminah mother of the Prophet, and the fourth of his father Abdullah, he was known for courage, and the light of the prophet shining in his forehead.
Qusay has gathered his people and installed them in the land of Mecca and ordered them to build around the "House" so the Arabs would fear them, and they built around his four sides and left space for the Tawaf, then made in it doors for them, Door for bani Shaybah, door for Bani Jamah, door for Bani Makhzum and door for Bani sahm. Qusay has built seminar House for consultation, and Quraysh agreed on his opinion and called it complex. In the pilgrimage season he told Quraysh: "This is the time of pilgrimage, the arabs have heard what you did and they are exalting you, and there is no greater honor for the Arabs than the food, so each of you offer a bit of his money." And so they did, and they collected lot of money. So, he slaughtered a camel for each road to Mecca in addition of those he slaughtered in Mecca, and kindled fire in Muzdalifah for people to see it.
He prepared then food during days of Mina, which was the custom until the coming of Islam, the food prepared by the Sultan during days of Mian is a heritage of Qusay. hence Khuza'a underwent to Qusay and gave him the commands and the stewardship of the sacred house.
Abd Manaf son of Qusay has gathered fame and honor, and for his beauty he was called "Batha Moon", he was tolerant and very generous, he was giving to whoever ask him even in the days of his father, so he was called "[Fayyad] the profluent." His name was "Abd" and then Manaf was added to it as he [anaf] was honoured and exalted by all. His will was found written in some stones, he recommended Quraysh to fear God the Almighty and to be good to kinship.
Hashem his son was like his father the master of Quraysh and all Arabs, he used to feed the pilgrims like he father, in one year, Quraysh did not have enough food, so he traveled to Sham and bought flour and cake and once back he slaughtered some camels and gave food to the people. He was generous, protecting the fearful and the wayfarer, and with the coming of the month of Dhu Al-Hijjah, he stood up in front of the door of Kaaba and deliver his sermon:
" O Quraysh, you are the masters of Arabs, and you are the neighbours of the House of God, Allah has blessed you by following him, and gave the privilege of the neighbouring, and the guests of Allah come to you to venerate His house, and it is an obligation on us to welcome God's guests, they are coming from every country covered with dust mounting weak animals. I swear by the Lord of this construction, if I have money for all of it, It would be sufficient, and I wil offer from my halal money that was not taken unjustly and that is not mixed with the forbidden, He who wants to do like this, he is welcomed. And I ask you by the sanctity of this House, that you offer only the pure halal money for hosting the visitors of the House of Allah."
He was the first who started the custom for Quraysh of the two trips, the trip to Yemen and the trip to Sham, and has a contract with the Roman kings and Ghassan for their safety. As the commerce of Quraysh was declining in Mecca and its environs, because of the goods of the Persians. So Hashem travelled to Sham and met Caesar, who liked his personality, the beauty of his appearance and generosity and authorized him to bring his trade and wrote a safety contract between them, which made the position of Hashem mush higher among people. He used to travel in winter to Yemen and in Summer to Sham, and accepted to share his trade with the chiefs of Arab tribes and from the kings of Yeme and Sham, giving them profit, and the food during their trips in counterpart of protecting him in his journey. And so, everybody was winner. Quraysh became rich again by the blessing of Hashem. And this is the state described in the Holy Quran, chapter of Quraysh.
He used to say in his sermons: "O people, We are the progeny of Ibrahim, and the descendants of Ishmael, children of An-Nidhr son of Kinana, children of Qusay son of Kilab, the masters of Mecca, the residents of the shrine, we have the best ancestry and we are the source of glory, it is a must to support and answer the call of each of us, apart from he who calls for disobeying the clan and cutting the kinship.
O children of Qusay, you are like two tree branches, whichever is broken it scares the other, and the sword is protected only by its sheath, and the one who targets the clan is hurt by his own arrow...
O people, forbearance is a honor, patience is victory, doing the good is a treasure, the generosity is majesty, and ignorance is foolishness, days are fear, time is ravages and the person is attributed to his action, and taken by his work, so do the good you wil gain the praise, and let the curiosity and the foolish will not be at your side, honor the one sitting [guest], your majliss will prosper, protect the good companion he will want to be your neighbor, be just with yourself, people will trust you, and stick to the noblest of morals it is a highness. And be aware of the bad morals it lowers your honor and destroys the glory..."
The light [noor] of the prophecy was shining on his forehead even in the darkest night, and whenever he passes next to a stone or a tree they tell him: O Hashem be pleased, from your progeny will be the noblest creation of Allah, Mohammad the seal of the Prophets.
His father Abd Manaf has commanded him like he was commanded by his father to put the Prophecy's light only in the pure wombs of the chaste women, and he took the covenant from him for this and he accepted.
Hence the nobles of emperors and Caesars wanted to be in-law with Hashem but he refused, until he saw in a dream someone telling him to marry Salma daughter of Amru son of Labeed son of Hadath son of Zayd son of Amer son of Ghanam son of Mazen son of Bani An-Najjar, She is pure and purified from evils, no other women look like her, give her the generous dowry, you will get from her a son who will be the grandfather of the Prophet.
Hashem took his brother and other members of his family to ask for her hand, his brother Al-Muttalib son of Abd Manaf said: "We are a delegation from the sacred house of God, the greatest rituals, and every foot seek to reach us, and you know our honor and glory, and the specificity that the Almighty God gave us, the bright light that we have from Adam (peace be upon him) from father to son, and we are offering to you and we are here to ask the hand of your noble daughter." Her father accepted and blessed the marriage, and they gave the dowry like they wanted.
After Hashem married her, she got pregnant by Abd Al-Muttalib the light moved to her, and she was hearing the good omens of the birth of the best of human, and she was scared so Hashem told her about the matter of the Prophet. And once Abd Al-Muttalib was born , he was called "Sheibat Al-Hamd" because people praised him a lot, and Quraysh seek him in calamities and resort by him, and he was the master of his people as he was the wisest and the most forbearer in Quraysh.
He has given some orders that Islam has proven later on, he prohibited the children to marry their father's wives, he found a treasure and has given its Khumus, he made a sunnah of giving one hundred camels in state of murder, also he made the [tawaf] surrounding seven times the Kaaba, cutting the hand of the thief, he forbade alcohol, adultery, performing the tawaf naked, dividing (the meat) by casting lots with arrows, and eating what has been slaughtered at altars.
It is narrated that he said: "The oppressor will not go out of this world before being avenged, as after this House (this world) another house where the one good will have the reward of his good deeds, and the abuser will get the punishment for his bad deeds, as if the oppressor doesn't get his punishment in this world, he will find it ready for him in the hereafter."
He was called the most generous for his generosity as the food he offers is eaten by the passengers then it is taken to the mountain of Qubays so the birds and animals eat the leftovers.
For his noble position, they were putting a carpet for him near the Kaaba, and no body else was allowed to do so, and nobody could sit with him on that carpet apart from the Holy Prophet, and when his uncles wanted to dislodge him, Abd Al-Muttalib shouted saying: "He has great status and great kingdom."
And there is no shadow of doubt that he was a "wasiy" Guardian, knowing the divine books, Abu Taleb has told the Messenger of Allah (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household): "My father was reading all the books" and has said: "From my progeny there will be a prophet, I wish I live in that time to believe in him, he who live in his time from my children has to believe in him."
And the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) has said: "I swear by God, that neither my father, nor my grandfather Abd Al-Muttalib, nor Abd Manaf nor Hashem di worship an idol, they were all worshiping Allah and pray to the house on the religion of Ibrahim, holding fast into it."
Abu Taleb, the Master of the land [Sayed Al-Batha'] was like his father "Shaybat Al-Hamd", having the knowledge of prophets' divine messages, incidents and epics, because he is a guardian [Wasiy] and the trustworthy on the prophets' commandments until he handed them over to the Holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household).
Darsat son of Mansoor said: I asked Aba Al-Hassan about abu Taleb and he told me: He acknowledged the Prophet and his Message until he died."
And Al-Majlisi stated: "The shiites unanimously agreed that Abu Taleb has never worshipped an idol, and he was on of the guardians of Ibrahim (peace be upon him)."
And Al-Tabarsi also spoke about the consensus of Ahl Al-Bayt (peace be upon them) on that, and Ibn Batriq agreed with him about it on his book "Al-Mustadrak". and Al-Sadooq said: "Abd Al-Muttalib and Abu Taleb were the most acknowledgeable scholars of the status of the Prophet, and they have concealed it on the ignorants and infidels."
And from the incidents that testifies that he was on the religion of monotheism, the religion of Ibrahim, that when Quraysh have witnessed the miracles of the night of the birth of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him), especially when they brough their idols to the mount of Abu Qubays to ask them to calm their panic, the mountain throbbed and their idols have fallen, so they run to Abu Taleb, as he was their refuge and the one who gave them protection , they asked him the same, and he raised his hands involing the Almighty God saying: "O God, I ask you by the praised Mohammadiyyah, and the high Alawiyyah, and the white Fatimiyyah, to kindly bestow compassion and mercy over Tuhamah." and everything got calm, and Quraysh knew then these names before they appear, and Arabs were using these names in their prayers without knowing their truth."
Hence, Abd al-Muttalib gave him the responsibility of the custody of the Apostle, and gave him this honor and not to any of his other sons saying:
وصيّت من كنيّته بطالّب... عبدَ مناف وهو ذو تجارّب
بابنِ الحبيّبِ أكرمِ الأقارّب... بابن الّذي قَدْ غابَ غيرَ آئب
And Abu taleb replied in these verses that he has heard the miracles and he will do the best to insure his duty:
لا تُوصني بلازم وواجب... إنّي سمعتُ أعجبَ العجائبِ
من كُلّ حبر عالم وكاتب... بأنّ بحمّد اللّه قول الراهبِ
Then Abd Al-Muttalib said:" Look, O Abu Taleb, protect this lonely boy that has never smelled his father, and has never felt the tenderness of his mother, let him be like your liver in your body. I have left all my children and I designated you because your son of his grandmother (as Abu taleb was the brother of the Prophet's father from both father and mother, unlike other uncles), and know if you can follow him do it, and give his support with your tongue, your hand and your money. By Allah, he will be your Master and he will have what no one of my fathers had, Do you accept my will?"
Abu Taleb replied: "Yes I accept, and Allah is the witness."
So Abd al-Muttalib said: "Now death has been alleviated for me." and he kept kissing him and telling him: I bear witness that I have not seen any of my children having better smell than you, not a more beautiful face."
Abu Taleb rejoiced having this honor from his compassionate father, having the eternal happiness of the custody of the Prophet of mercy. so he protected him since his childhood by his wealth and relevance from the jews, Arabs and Quraysh, and he was behaving with him altruistically as he witnessed his miracles, as the young boy preferred loneliness than being with the group, he has in his young age prestige and wisdom, and he started all the time eating by saying: "In the name of Allah, the unique One." and once finishing his food he thanked and praised Allah, and when he looked at him while sleeping Abu Taleb saw the light shining from his head to the sky.
And once he was with him in Dhi Majaz, and Abu Taleb got thirsty and he did not find water, the Prophet then kicked a rock with his foot, and fresh water flowed underneath it. And the since he started living in the house of Abu Taleb, food got a lot and whenever the he ate a bit from it, they could feed from it everybody. And this alone, is enough for Abu Taleb to be certain of the prophecy of the son of his brother; Mohammad (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household).
Adding to that his speech when he asked the hand of Lady Khadija for his nephew, he said about him: "By Allah, he will have a great tidings and will face a great risk."
And in his will to Quraysh, he said: "I command you to be good to Muhammad, he is the trustworthy of Quraysh, the truthful of the Arabs, and he includes all that he commanded you, bringing an order that was before the heavens."
When Al-Abbas son of Abd Al-Muttalib came to inform him about the ploy of Quraysh against the Prophet, he told him: "My father informed me that the Prophet surely stands on the truth, and the ploys of Quraysh won't harm him, as my father was reading all books. and said: From my descendance comes a prophet, i wish if i live in his time I would believe in him, and whoever live in his time,, has to believe in him."
And using the words of his father, even though he was reading the divine books himself, is a proof that he was a master in the establishment of the proof of the validity of the prophecy, and that the obligation is to believe in the true faith.
On this basis, he told some scholars of rabbis secretly that his nephew Muhammad is the good spirit and the holy prophet in the words of the Torah and the Gospel, and asked him the concealment of this talk and to not disclose the news, saying: "My father told me that he is the sent prophet, and ordered me to keep it secret for lest that the enemies plot against him."
And if he did not believe in the truth of the message he would not encourage his brother Hamza when he showed his Islam in these verses:
فصَبْراً أبا يَعلى على دينِ أحمد... وكُنْ مظهراً للدين وُفّقت صابراً
وحطْ من أتى بالدين من عندِ ربِّه...بصدق وحقّ لا تكن حمز كافراً
فقد سرّني إذ قلت إنّك مُؤمن ...فكنْ لرسولِ اللّهِ في اللّهِ ناصرا
ونادِ قُريشاً بالذي قَدْ أتيته... جهاراً وقُلّ ما كان أحمدَ ساحرا
And replied to Quraysh that he found the name of his nephew Muhammad prophet like Moise in the first line of the divine books:
أَلَمْ تَعْلَموا أنّا وجدنا محمّداً... نبيّاً كموسى خطَّ في أوّل الكتّب
And said that we believe in the son of Abdullah (the holy prophet) despite the wrath of our people:
وأَمسى ابنُ عبدِ اللّهِ فينا مُصدّقاً... على سخط من قَومنا غيرَ معتّب
And said that the trustworthy, the beloved one has the seal of prophecy from the Lord, and all people see in him the proof and prestige and knowledge, he is the prophet to whom the Lord send his revelation, and whoever says no will regret it:
أمينٌ محبّ في العبادِ مسوّم... بخاتمِ ربِّ قاهر للخواتمِ
يرى الناسُ بُرهاناً عليه وهيْبة... وما جاهل في فعلهِ مثل عالمِ
نبيّ أتاه الوحي من عندِ ربِّه ... فمَن قال لا يقرع بها سنّ نادم
And in his letter to Negus, he said: Do the good people know that Mohammad is a minister to Moses and Jesus son of Mary, bringing guidance like what they brought, each of them with the order of God guides, and you recite it in your books, words of truth, so do not make a rival to God and convert to Islam, as the truth path is not dark:
أتدري خيارُ الناسِ أنّ محمّداً ...وزيرٌ لموسى والمسيّح بن مريَم
أتى بالهدى مثَلَ الذي أتيَا بهِ ... فكُلٌ بأمر اللّه يهدي ويَعصِمُ
وإنّكم تتلونه في كتابكم ... بِصدقِ حديث لا حديثَ المُترجم
فلا تجعلوا للّهِ نداً وأسلموا... فإنّ طريق الحقِّ ليس بمُظلِمِ
After all these proofs, is there any doubt yet in the belief of Abi Taleb? His recognition of the prophecy of his nephew Muhammad in many poems is not enough? or when he speaks with his nephew saying: O son, you can go happy and pleased, by Allah, even when they gather, they won't harm you until I get buried under the soil. And you called me and I knew you were advising me, and I believed even before when you were called the trustworthy. And you speak about a religion that is inevitably is the best of earth's religions:
اذهب بُنيّ فمَا عليكَ غَضاضَة... اذهب وقرّ بذاك مِنك عيونا
واللّه لن يَصلوا إليكَ بجمعهِم ... حتّى أُوسدَ في التّراب دفينا
ودعوتني وعلمتُ أنّكَ ناصحي... ولقد صدقتَ وكُنتَ قَبلُ أمينا
وذكرتَ ديناً لا محالة أنّه ...من خير أديانِ البريّة دينا
If Abu Taleb did not believe in the truth of what his nephew informed him, he would not tell him with the presence of Quraysh to show them his bounty as he already believe in his prophecy: "O son of my brother! Has God sent you? He replied: Yes
Abu Taleb then asked him: The prophets have miracles so show us one!
He (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) said: O uncle, call that tree and tell it: Muhammad son of Abdullah tells you: come by the permission of Allah! and Abu Taleb called the tree and it came until it prostrated in front of him and then order it to go and it went. Abu Taleb said then: I bear witness that you are truthful. And then ordered his son Ali (peace be upon him): O son, cling to him."
And once he asked his son Ali: "What is this that you do? He replied: O father, I have believed in God and in His Messenger, and I accepted what he brought, and I entered with him and I followed him." Abu Taleb then said: He only calls you for the good, so cling to him."
Will the researcher after all of this, find an escape from the assertion that Sheikh Al-Abtah (one of the names of Abu Taleb) was embracing the true religion, fighting the tyrants of Quraysh? Even though some of the historians from those who loved the hatred of his son Ali, and who could not find a way to underestimate the Imam so they attacked his mother and father to hurt the Imam, as they could not degrade the dignity of the Prophet or his guardian, they focused on degrading their parents by saying they were not believers, covering and hiding the bright truth of their virtues and their strong belief.
As example of the ploys of the historians when some of them wrote when mentioning the prisoners of Badr: "Among the prisoners, were the Prophet's uncle, and his cousin 'Aqeel (Ali's brother)" In fact, if the intention was to get the reader know who is 'Aqeel, it was enough to say that he was his cousin, but adding that he was the brother of Ali between brackets, aims something else, but the light is bright and it won't be extinguished.
Then, other historians limited their narrations to the prejudices and neglected the true facts. They narrated that he told the Messenger of Allah: "What is this religion?" The Messenger of Allah replied: "It is the religion of God, the religion of his angels and messengers, the religion of our father Ibrahim, God has sent me with it to the people, and you are the most deserving of whom I call to guidance, and the most deserving who answered." Abu Taleb then replied: "I can not be separated from my religion and the religion of my fathers, and by Allah, the ploys of Quraysh won't harm you as long as I am alive."
And they thought from these words that Abu Taleb worshiped idols, but How? and he was the one speaking about the Unification [Tawheed].
Our answer: The holy prophet himself said: you're the most deserving who answered! and then when Abu Taleb said: "I can not be separated from my religion and the religion of my fathers" it was a recognition of his faith, the white religion of Ibrahim, the religion of truth and guidance, this is his religion and the religion of his fathers, and to reassure more the holy prophet, he added that he will protect him as long as he is alive!!
His eloquent poetry was filled by the belief of the prophecy, that was well known to everybody, a poet of the time has said: Without Abu Taleb and his son, the representative of this religion [the prophet] could not stand up, one in Mecca hosted and protected him and the other in Yathrib fought for his sake, so Abd Manaf (Abu Taleb) ensured the order and fulfilled it and Ali completed it. And only their enemies and haters who harm the glory of Abu Taleb:
ولولاَ أبُو طَالب وابنُهُُ... لمّا مَثُلَ الّدِين شَخصاً فَقامَا
فَذاكَ بِمَكةَ آوى وحَامَا ...وهذا بيثرِبَ جَسّ الحِمامَا
تَكفّل عَبدُ مُناف بِأمرٍ ...وأَودىَ فَكَان عليٌ تَمامَا
فللِّه ذا فَاتِحُ للهُدَى... وللّه ذا للمَعالِي خِتامَا
وما ضَرّ مَجدُ أبي طَالب... عَدو لغا أو جَهولٌ تعامى
And concerning the Commander of the Faithful, the most eloquent ones does not know how to speak about his virtues, and what can they say of the one whose father Abu Taleb has said about him the night of his birth, when Quraysh run to him scared of the miracles they have never seen nor heard: "O people, in this night, a guardian of the guardians of Allah will appear, in whom the good qualities are perfected, and the guardians are completed, and he is the Imam of the pious, the religion's supporter, the repressor of the idolaters, the rage of hypocrites, the best of worshippers and the guardian of the Messenger of the Worlds' Lord, a guiding Imam, a high star, the lamp in the darkness, the repeller of the idolatry and suspicions and he is the soul of certainty." And he kept repeating this while walking in the streets and markets of Mecca until morning.
The Messenger of Allah (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) said: "Ali's strike on Amru Ibn Wud, is worth the combined worship of all of mankind and Jinns." On the eve of the campaign of Khaybar, he said: "I shall certainly give the standard in the hand of one who loves Allah and His Messenger, and whom Allah loves and also His Messenger. And Allah will grant victory at his hand." then he gave it to Ali (peace be upon him) and he was victorious.
And more and more of the greatness that God deposited in him. But we must draw the attention of the reader into something that the narrators repeated: Islam of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in his childhood. We say:
We don't say that the Commander of the Faithful is the first who believed even that he was the first who showed adherence to Islam when the Prophet announced his message, but we say: When Ali has disbelieved to believe!But he was along with the owner of the divine message knowing the religion and its teachings, together believing in since they were in the world of lights before the creation of creation, in the world of the holiness, since which Muhammad is the prophet and Ali is the guardian when Adam was still between water and mud, Allah's prayers be upon them.
The Prophet of Islam, has accepted all that he accomplished for him of brotherhood, guardianship and succession, the day he called him and obeyed the order, and supported him when the verse was revealed: {And (O Messenger) warn your nearest kinsfolk.} (26:214).
And the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) praised himself many times, and he is the most knowing after the Holy Prophet of the religion's teachings, saying: "I am the greatest truthful [Siddiq], the one who says it after me is a liar and forger, I prayed with the Messenger of Allah seven years before people."
We, followers and lovers of the Imams of Islam, believe that the Imams are bearer of the weight of the message's argument and all virtues since birth, exactly like Jesus was a prophet since birth, and Yahya was given wisdom since child, it is just that some of them were ordered to speak out their belief and other were ordered to be silent until the exact time to speak. So, any kind of research in this matter is nonsense, as no other than them can deeply assimilate this.
This is the golden chain of the distinguished fathers of Abu Al-Fadl, all of them were embodying the uppermost virtues, honor and glory, combining the good vehemence and the great leadership, the purity and probity. When you look at them you only see guidance beacon, the sea of generosity, the example of piety, the calling for the unification [tawheed], to valor, heroism, pride and dignity. Our Master Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) inherited all of these virtues from them, and if we only take in this golden chain, the Commander of the Faithful, we would understand the attributes of glory and beauty recognized by him in his beloved son "Qamar [moon of] Al-Hashemiyeen."
His upbringing
There is no doubt that the psyches and tendencies of parents, their knowledge or ignorance, pride or indignity have a prominent impact on the upbringing of children, if we don't say it is the only factor in the adaptation of emerging psyches, either good or bad, the behavior is mostly prevailed by the inherited one from the predecessor unless there is something that inhibits the natural flow.
On this basis, we can understand a bit the value of knowledge, science and morals of Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) as he a member of 'Alawi housem the source of sciences' lights, the focus of divine secretes and the knowledge of the unseen (prescience), it is the house of science and work, jihad and piety, knowledge and faith.
All the morals of Aba Al-Fadel Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) are not only acquired, but his embryo was merged with sacred soil of the divine light, to make the core of the example of the right and certitude, and Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) came to this world having the source of intelligence, consciousness of divine knowledge and the reflection of all virtues, and was embraced by the lap of sanctity, fed by his father to enlighten him by the lights of visible and invisible world and the divine secrets to blow him up with the breezes of the unseen so he breaths from it the truths.
His father (peace be upon him) called him when he was still a child, made him sit at his lap and told him: "Say: One!" He said: "One" Then he told him: Say: Two" Al-Abbas then replied: I am ashamed to say "two" with a tongue that said "one."
I we look closely at this word, Master Al-Abbas pointed out that the oneness is worthy only to The Originator of the heavens and the earths, as he has been growing up under the shadow of the great tree of Imamate, his tongue is used only to speak about the oneness of The All-Holy Maker, like stated in the Holy Quran: {But the fact is that had there been in the heavens and the earth any deities other than God, both (of those realms) would certainly have fallen into ruin. All-Glorified God is, the Lord of the Supreme Throne, in that He is absolutely above all that they attribute to Him.} (21:22).
Lady Zaynab was then present, and she was still child too, she asked then her father: Do you love us? He told her: Yes!, she replied: Two loves can not gather in the heart of a believer: love of Allah, and love of children, and if it is a must, so love is for the Almighty Allah and compassion for the children." He appreciated her words and his compassion and love for her increased.
Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was educating even the foreigners, and they even benefited from him to know some of the existence secrets, and through that education they learned the sciences of deaths and tribulations ['ilm al-Manaya wa al-Balaya], such as Habeeb Ibn Mudhaher, Maytham At-Tammar, Rasheed Al-Hajari, Kumayl Ibn Ziyad and others, and is it reasonable that the apple of his eye, his son Al-Abbas does not have any knowledge?!
No, by God! The Master of guardians has given to his beloved son the guidance sciences, which is a proof that Al-Abbas is one of the holders of the knowledge and among those firmly rooted in knowledge.
In fact, Al-Abbas was raised in addition to the first great university (his father), in two other sources of divine teachings, Imams Al-Hassan and Al-Hussayn (peace be upon both of them), he was always accompanying his two elder brothers, cultivating the fruits and pearls of their immortal treasure, from which he earned a lasting wealth.
Adding to that what he learned and narrated from the Lady of the revelation house, Saint Zaynab, and she is a scholar without a teacher, as Imam Zayn Al-'Abideen stated about her.
If narrations state that he who is sincere to Allah for forty days, fountains of wisdom will explode from his heart on his tongue. So, what about he who has been sincere to Allah all his life? His holy soul must be filled by the lights of sciences and virtues.
He (peace be upon him) excelled in all sciences, and the infallible Imams said about him: "Al-Abbas was fed with knowledge like a bird feeds his chicks." A great metaphor to show the great ability of Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) to receive Science and knowledge since he was a baby and child, he was weaned the knowledge and wisdom.
It is stated in the famous book "Kibrit Ahmar" ch3, p45: "Al-Abbas was one of the greatest virtuous scholars of Ahl Al-Bayt, he is even a scholar who wasn't taught, which is not inconsistent with the education given by his father (peace be upon him) to him."
And there is a story told by great scholars, that once a man dreamt of Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) warning him because he had degrade his position when talking about him in a Majlis. In the dream, Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) told him: "I have studied at my father the Commander of the Faithful and my two brothers Imams Al-Hassan and Al-Hussayn (peace be upon them), and I am certain of my religion as I have received it from the best teachers who have taught me truths, laws and teachings of Islam from the source of divine revelation. And I have the noble morals, such as generosity, patience, compassion, Jihad and others, that if it was divided on all of you, you would not be able to carry it."
His nicknames
Abu Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) is known by titles and nicknames, some of them came after At-Taf, and other were famous during his life.
Abu Qurbah: [the owner of the skin of water]
He was given this name because he carried water during the battle of At-Taff more than once, while all rivers were blocked, and the son of the Messenger and his children were forbidden from water, putting an army only to put a blockade on the river, but Aba Al-Fadl did not fear their great number, and neither their spears nor their swords stopped him, but he brought the water to the children of his brother and his family.
Abu Al-Qassem :
This name, however, is not common among historians as none of them have mentioned that Al-Abbas had a son called Al-Qassem. But Jabir Al-Ansari addressed to Al-Abbas during the Ziyarat of Al-Arbaeen: "Peace be upon you O Abu Al-Qassem. Peace be upon you, O Abbas son of Ali." Undoubtedly, Jabir was that great personality who spent much of his time in the house of prophecy and Imamate; therefore, he was more knowledgeable than others in the secrets, affairs, and news of this holy house.
Abu Al-Fadl (father -or owner- of virtue)
He was known by this third nickname, as he had a son called Al-Fadl, and as a matter of fact, this name represents his personality completely, because he was the owner, leader, and source of virtue. Either in his life or after his martyrdom, he was an is the shelter and refuge of everyone who seeks his help.
His characteristics
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) combined both the physical and moral beauties, this is why he was called "The moon of Bani Hashem", as he was the most handsome of all, like a shining moon when it is full, he used to mount the most beautiful horses and his feet would touch the ground.
He (peace be upon him) was known by his outstanding courage, which is regarded as the highest characteristic of manhood. Of course he (peace be upon him) inherited this all his characteristics from his father who was the ever most courageous and also from his maternal uncles, who were famous of being the most courageous among all the Arabs. He was a perfect example of valor; as fear had never been on his mind during battles in which he participated with his father.
During the battle of at-Taff, Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) gave the highest examples of heroism and courage. In fact, that battle is seen as the greatest conflict in the history of Islam. Facing the large gatherings of Yazid's army, Al-Abbas manifested braveness that filled the hearts of the most courageous of their warriors of fear and made them cowards. And as they couldn't face this hero they used deceptive ways; like promising him to give him the general commandment of their army if he would leave the camp of his brother, but Al-Abbas rejected their offer, which was for him no more than a factor that increased his perseverance on his principles and persistence on defending his beliefs.
Narrators have referred that he (peace be upon him) has caused great casualties into Yazid's army. He filled the fields of that battle with the bodies of their victims, painted their horses with their blood, and planted horror and terror in their hearts. His sword was a destroying thunderbolt that inflicted bereavement and fatality upon people of Kufa who were on the opposite side.
The courage of Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) has astonished poets and authors who have described him in nonesuch styles, as he has given the best examples of heroism all over history. Since this courage was shown for defending the right and protecting the high values and principles of Islam.
Faith is another major personality feature of Al-Abbas. He was brought up in the laps of the true faith and obedience of God. His father; the Commander of the Faithful and the Imam of the pious, fed him with the essence of faith and God's oneness. Hence, Al-Abbas grew up having the cognizant faith, piety and sincerity, and the true pondering over the secrets of creation, giving great examples of pure sacrifices for the sake of God.
He (peace be upon him) had also great sense of pride and honor that he refused completely to live in humbleness under the shadows of the Umayyad rulers who usurped the wealth of God and treated people as slaves. Thus, he pushed himself in the fighting fields, following his brother who raised the slogan of honor and dignity and declared that death would be no more than pleasure, while to live with the wrongdoers would be only humility.
On the day of Ashura, Al-Abbas had to encounter unspeakable crises. Nevertheless, he did not show any feeling of worry and did not utter any single word of resentment. On the contrary, he submitted the whole matter to his Master, his brother, Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), whose patience was as heavy as unshakable mountains.
Al-Abbas saw the companions of his brother melting by the sun on the sand of Karbala, heard the weeping of the children out of their thirst and heard women mourning their men, and saw the loneliness of his brother who were encircled by the meanest enemies, willing to kill him to 'win' the prize of the governor of Kufa.
Al-Abbas gave the best example of being loyal and faithful to the allegiance to the Imam of his time Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him). All over history, you cannot find an example of loyalty more exalted than that of Al-Abbas to his brother and master. Hence, his loyalty has become the inspiring model of every free and honest person.
His sisters
Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) has the honor to be the brother of two Imams, who were one of the virtues of their father who has said about them to the presents on the Shura day: "I appeal on your belief in Allah, is there any of you who has sons like Al-Hassan and Al-Hussayn the two sons of the Messenger of Allah and the masters of the youth of Paradise, apart from me? and they said: No!"
And He also expressed his pride to be their father on the letter he wrote as a reply to the letter of Mu'awiyah in which he has enumerated his alleged virtues, the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) said seven verses in which he has spoken about the pride of being a son in law to the Messenger of Allah, having an uncle [Hamza] who is the master of martyrs of his time, a brother [Ja'far] who is flying with angels in heavens, the fact of being the first in Islam, the pledge of allegiance taken for him [Ghadeer day] and having two sons that are the sons of the Messenger of Allah (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household).
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) has other brothers, as the Commander of the Faithful has sixteen male children, who are:
Al-Hassan, Al-Hussayn and Al-Muhassin, their mother is the Lady of all worlds' women [Lady Fatima Az-Zahra].
Mohammad Ibn Al-Hanafiyah, his mother was Khawlah.
Al-Abbas, Abdullah, Ja'far and Uthman, their mother was Umm Al-Baneen.
Omar Al-Atraf and Al-Abbas Asghar, their mother was Al-Sahba.
Mohammad Asghar, his mother Umamah bint Abi Al-'As.
Yahya and 'Awn, their mother Asma' Bint 'umays.
Abdullah and Abu Bakr, their mother Layla bint Mas'ud.
Mohammad awsat [middle], his mother Umm walad.
His brothers
Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) has the honor to be the brother of two Imams, who were one of the virtues of their father who has said about them to the presents on the Shura day: "I appeal on your belief in Allah, is there any of you who has sons like Al-Hassan and Al-Hussayn the two sons of the Messenger of Allah and the masters of the youth of Paradise, apart from me? and they said: No!"
And He also expressed his pride to be their father on the letter he wrote as a reply to the letter of Mu'awiyah in which he has enumerated his alleged virtues, the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) said seven verses in which he has spoken about the pride of being a son in law to the Messenger of Allah, having an uncle [Hamza] who is the master of martyrs of his time, a brother [Ja'far] who is flying with angels in heavens, the fact of being the first in Islam, the pledge of allegiance taken for him [Ghadeer day] and having two sons that are the sons of the Messenger of Allah (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household).
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) has other brothers, as the Commander of the Faithful has sixteen male children, who are:
Al-Hassan, Al-Hussayn and Al-Muhassin, their mother is the Lady of all worlds' women [Lady Fatima Az-Zahra].
Mohammad Ibn Al-Hanafiyah, his mother was Khawlah.
Al-Abbas, Abdullah, Ja'far and Uthman, their mother was Umm Al-Baneen.
Omar Al-Atraf and Al-Abbas Asghar, their mother was Al-Sahba.
Mohammad Asghar, his mother Umamah bint Abi Al-'As.
Yahya and 'Awn, their mother Asma' Bint 'umays.
Abdullah and Abu Bakr, their mother Layla bint Mas'ud.
Mohammad awsat [middle], his mother Umm walad.
His Paternal uncles
It is said in a hadith: "The child may look like his maternal uncles and his paternal uncles." And the paternal uncles of Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) were the best of people, it is enough that one of them is Ja'far son of Abu Taleb (peace be upon both of them) who is called by the holy prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) after his martyrdom: Ja'far At-Tayyar [the flying high] as his both arms were cut and the Almighty replaced them to him by wings of angels.
One of the great paternal uncles of the Holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) is Al-Hamza son of Abd Al-Muttalib.
Hamza (peace be upon him) was called by the Holy Prophet (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) : "The lion of Allah and the lion of His Messenger." This does not mean only that he was courageous and strong, because the Master of eloquence could call him only a lion, but He is more than that. But linking his intrepidity, courage, braveness, pluckiness and daringness to the Almighty and to the Holy person of the Messenger is because every step he made, was for the sake of raising the supreme word of Allah and the call of the Messenger (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household). As he (peace be upon him) was one of the pillars of the religion and one of its references of guidance, all of which was given to him by the Almighty that was not given to martyrs before him.
It is narrated in the book "At-Tarf" of Sayed. Ibn Tawoos: On the eve of the day when Hamza was wounded, the Messenger of Allah said to him: "You will be absent for a long time, so what will you say when Allah will ask you about the laws of Islam and terms of faith? Hamza cried and asked him: Show me and guide me.
The prophet said: "To bear witness that Allah is One, that Mohammad is His Messenger, Ali is Wali [guardian], and that the Imams are from the descendants of Al-Hussayn, Fatima is the Lady of the worlds women, and than Ja'far At-Tayyar, your nephew is with angels in heaven, and that Muhammad and his Holy Household are the best of creatures."
Hamza then said: I accept and believe.
Then the Messenger of Allah: "And You bear witness that you are the master of martyrs, the lion of Allah and lion of His Messenger."
When he heard that, Hamza fall on his face and then kissed they eyes of the Messenger of Allah and said: I bear witness to that and you are the witness, and Allah is witness and Allah suffices for a witness."
Also our saint Imams (peace be upon them) have praise in many occasions their uncle Al-Hamza, the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) has said: "A group of the Muhajireen [immigrants from Mecca to Madina] were martyred in the path of Allah, and each of them has a virtue, until when one of us were martyred, it was said: The Master of martyrs, and the Messenger of Allah specified him by seventy Takbeer in his funeral prayers."
Also in the the day of Shura he (peace be upon him) said: "Is there any of you, who has an uncle like Hamza the lion of Allah and the lion of His Messenger?"
Imam Al-Mujtaba (peace be upon him) has said in one of his sermons: "Among those who have responded to the Messenger of Allah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) his uncle Hamza, and his cousin Ja'far, then they were martyred among many companions of the Messenger of Allah, and he made Hamza the Master of martyrs."
And The Master of Martyrs, Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) said on the day of At-Taf: "Is Hamza the master of martyrs my father's uncle or not?"
And many other narrations stressing on the high position of Hamza (peace be upon him), emphasized by the Messenger of Allah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) who has said: "O Ansar [people of Medina], O Bani Hashem, O sons of Abd Al-Muttalib, I am Muhammad the Messenger of Allah, I have been created from a blessed mud in four of the people of my house: Me, Ali, Hamza and Ja'far."
Hamza and Ja'far have a great position, Imam As-Sadeq (peace be upon him) said: "On the day of Judgment, Allah the almighty gathers all creations which were called by Noah (peace be upon him), who is asked: Did you convey the Message? He says: Yes. Then he is asked: Who is your witness? He replies: Muhammad Ibn Abdillah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household). So, Noah (peace be upon him) comes out ad skips people until he comes to Muhammad (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household)... And tells him: O Muhammad, the Almighty Allah has asked me if I conveyed the message and I said yes, then he asked me who is your witness, and I said Muhammad. So the Messenger of Allah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) says: O Ja'far, O Hamza, go and witness that he has convey the message.
Imam As-Sadeq (peace be upon him) says: So, Hamza and Ja'far are the witnesses that the prophets (peace be upon them) have conveyed their messages." The Imam was asked: May I ransom you, where is Ali (peace be upon him) then? he (peace be upon him) replied: He has a greatest position than that."
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) has another great uncle, Taleb (peace be upon him), and the following narration shows his great position: Jaber Al-Ansari asked the Messenger of Allah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household): Most of the people say that Abu Taleb has died unbeliever. He said: "O Jaber, Your Lord is the Knower of the unseen, on the night of my ascension [Isra'] to the heaven, I arrived to the Throne, I have seen four lights, and I said: O my God, what are these lights. He has said: O Muhammad, This is Abd Al-Muttalib, and this is Abu Taleb, and this your father Abdullah and this is your brother Taleb. And I said: O my God and my Master, How did they gain this level? He said: By concealing their faith and patience until they died."
'Aqeel son of Abi Taleb, another uncle, is one branch of this great tree, as the researcher in Islamic history knows he was from the first Muslims. The Messenger of Allah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) told him: "I love you two loves, one love for you and other love for the love that has Abu Taleb for you." And we know that the Holy Prophet (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) would not love him just because he was his cousin and brother, but for his faith and courage, as Abu Taleb (peace be upon him) would not love him that much knowing he had brothers like Imam Ali, Ja'far At-Tayyar and Taleb, but of course for his bravery, strong faith and steadfastness on the truth, which was clear when he faced the enemies of his brother the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) and in his education to his children, such as Muslim Ibn 'Aqeel (peace be upon him) who were the ambassador of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) and the first martyr of the tragedy of At-Taff.
As for Ja'far At-Tayyar son of Abi Taleb, it is enough to say about his greatness the testimony of the sacred Messenger when he told him: "You look so like me in appearance and in morals." He (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) also said about him after he came back from his immigration to Habasha on the day when Imam Ali (peace be upon him) conquered Khaybar: I don't know which event is more cheerful - Ja'far's coming or the Conquest of Khaybar!" Our Master Muhammad (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) embraced his cousin Ja'far and kissed his forehead and said: "Certainly Ja'far and his friends have two immigrations - an immigration to Habasha and an immigration to al-Madina al-Munawara."
In the battle of Mu`tah, Ja'far has fought bravely and was martyred and his both hands were cut, The Messenger of Allah had said: "Jibreel has told me that Allah has granted Ja'far two wings to fly with in the Paradise."
Marriage and birth
The commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) married Fatima daughter of Huzam Al-'Amiriyah, either straightaway after the death of Lady Fatima Az-Zahra (peace be upon her) as seen by some historians, or after he married Umamah daughter of Zaynab daughter of the Messenger of Allah (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) as seen by others, all after the death of Lady Az-Zahra (peace be upon her) because Allah has prohibited Ali to marry other women as long as Fatima is alive.
So, Fatima bint Huzam gave birth to four sons, who are: Al-Abbas, Abdullah, Ja'far and Uthman, and lived long after him and she did not marry anyone other than him, like Umamah, Asma' bint 'Umays and Layla Al-Nahshaliyah, who did not marry after him, and when the Master of Guardians (peace be upon him) was martyred, he had these four wives.
Many have proposed to Umamah such as al-Mughira Ibn Nawfal, Abu al-Hayyaj Ibn Abi Sufian and she refused, and she has recounted a narration from Imam Ali (peace be upon him): Wives of the prophet and the guardian [wasiy] do not marry after him, and in accordance to this narration, his wives and mothers of his children did not marry after him.
Umm Al-Baneen is one of the women of virtue, knowing the right of Ahl Al-Bayt (peace be upon them), sincere in her loyalty to them, true in her love to them and she has a great status for them, Lady Zaynab (peace be upon her) has visited her after arriving to Medina to present her condolences to her for the martyrdom of her four sons, and she used to visit her in Eid days.
Her faith, perspicacity and knowledge of the position of Ahl Al-Bayt (peace be upon her) made her enter the house of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) when she got married to him, and behaved extremely nicely with Al-Hassan and Al-Hussayn -who were then ill- telling them sweet words and acting like a compassionate mother for them.
There is no doubt of that as she is the wife of the one who embodies faith, enlightened by his lights, fondled in his flowers' garden, benefited of his knowledge, educated by his ethics and behaving with his morals.

BIRTH
The universe shone by the birth of the moon of Bani Hashem in the house of glory, suckling the milk of valor, educated in the lap of guardianship, under the shadow of vibrant spring of Imamate, so he grew up amid magnanimity, pride and integrity, with a soul filled by firm faith, maturity and knowledge.
All his life, he kept following the steps of the Master of martyrs (peace be upon him) from whom he was created, he existed to be his support and to be like him in the values, greatness merits, courage and glory features. When he walks (peace be upon him) he walks for the honor, and when he talks, he talked about guidance and advises, and when he looks, he looks only to the right.
Abu Al-Fadl gathers in his personality all the virtues and ideals of genius, he benefited of the sun's lights of the Imamate "Hussayn of science,valor, and righteousness, and he was with his brother the martyr (peace be upon him) like the verse states: {{ والشمس وضحاها * والقمر إذا تلاها }}, {By the sun and its brightness; And the moon as it follows it} (91:1-2) as he never preceded him by a word, an act or a thought, as his personality is a shadow of the holy light.
He followed the Imam even in his date of birth, as Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) was born on the third of Sha'ban, and Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) was born on the forth of the same month on the year 26 AH.
There is no doubt that when the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) has taken his beloved son between his hands to perform the Sunnah of newborn babies, after choosing his mother to be from one of the bravest Arabs houses, so her son will be a supporter to his brother when he will be surrounded by misguidance gangs, the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) has seen with the wide knowledge of Imamate what the calamity that will be happening to him, turning his babies' palms that will be cut for the sake of supporting the Imam of his time, so his eyes are filled with tears..
And then looks at his chest and sees the arrows of the enemy entrenched in it, and to his head and sees the iron baton that will hit it, and all of which makes him sorrowed and crying more and more. And whenever he sees him giving water to his brother, he thinks of his dedication when he will give water to the ladies of the saint family, of the moment when he will refuse to drink and fight all an army just to take water to his brother and his family, in a clear scene of sincerity in brotherhood, sympathy and loyalty...
Therefore, as much pleased his father was to see his virtues and valor he is saddened to remember the misfortunes that will happen to him. This is a normal feeling of ordinary parents to their child, so what about the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) and his faithful wife Umm al-Baneen (peace be upon her). and What a child can Abu Al-Fadl be, a person that no words can describe his bounty and no statement can expound his sufferings and his oppression.
The author of "Qamar Bani Hashem" wrote on page 21 that Umm Al-Baneen has seen the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) one day had Aba Al-Fadl (Peace be upon him) on his lap, and while kissing his son's forearms he was crying, so she was astonished to see a child having the virtues of his father and cried by his father without any apparent reason. The commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) informed her about the destiny of her son, and what will happen to him and to his forearms when supporting Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) and she cried and wept, and all those who were at the house shared her grief and anguish, but the Master of guardians foretold her about the status of her beloved son by the Almighty, and that he will be given two wings to fly with the angels in heaven, like his uncle Ja'far Ibn Abi Taleb, and she became happy and pleased of the eternal happiness.
Al-Abbas in the Imams' sight
The Immaculate Imams are the representatives of God, the successors of His Prophet and the leaders that God has assigned for people so as to make distinction between the right and the wrong. They, peace be upon them, praised many persons and also condemned many others - each according to their deeds. On that account, they described Al-Abbas, with the finest words of praise, appreciation, and commendation and showed their admiration for his heroic performance for defending Islam. He however, has occupied the hearts and feelings of the great personalities and has become melody of the free people all over history.
Let us now refer to some of the medals that the Immaculate Imams (peace be upon them) conferred upon Al-Abbas:
1-Imam Ali (peace be upon him):
We have already mentioned that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) foretold about the personality and future of Al-Abbas when he was one-day old. In many other situations, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) foretold that his son would shoulder the responsibility of protecting the harem of his brother and would sacrifice himself for his religion and belief.
These predictions are regarded as commendations for Al-Abbas whose mission was divinely identified and prepared. He did not disappoint his father when he accomplished his mission as completely as possible to the last spark of his life.
2-Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him):
Historian have narrated many reports showing the close, unique relation between Al-Abbas and his brother, Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon both of them) who addressed to him a word showing the great rank that Al-Abbas occupied in his brother's mentality: In one of the many situations in Karbala, Imam Al-Hussayn said to his brother Al-Abbas: "Ride on, may I be your sacrifice."
And when Al-Abbas breathed his last breaths Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) declared with deeply sad tone: "Now, my back is broken, and I have become helpless, and my enemies are rejoicing at my misfortune." This word expresses the real position that Al-Abbas was occupying for his brother.
3-Imam Zayn Al-'Abideen (peace be upon him):
Imam Zayn Al-'Abideen (peace be upon him) is one of the founders of true piety and virtue of Islam. Historians have reported that he used to seek Allah's mercy for his uncle, Al-Abbas, and used to refer to him with the finest words of admiration and commendation:
"Allah may have mercy upon my uncle, Al-Abbas. He preferred his brother to himself, did well, and sacrificed himself for his brother until he lost his two hands for sake of such. Thus, Allah, instead of his two hands, will give him two wings with which he will fly with the angels in Paradise, just like Ja'far ibn Abi Taleb. Verily Abbas has a status in the presence of Allah that all the martyrs will envy on the Day of Judgment."
The previous statement of Imam Zayn Al-'Abideen (peace be upon him) includes the most significant sacrifices that Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) did towards his brother; Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him). For sake of his brother, Al-Abbas sacrificed his two hands and went on resisting until he was felled. For these great sacrifices, God will grant Al-Abbas an unparalleled rank that all martyrs will wish if they had its like.
In addition to that, the divine rule says that only an Imam can bury and Imam, and this is why Imam As-Sajjad (peace be upon him) by miracle went back to Karbala to bury his father Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him). Historians state that once there he (peace be upon him) guided the tribe of Bani Asad to identify the corpses, and requested them to bury all the martyrs, apart from his father father and his uncle Al-Abbas (peace be upon both oft hem). He came down from his horse, and walked between the corpses and stopped at the body of his father Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) and hugged him, and started smelling and kissing him, crying out loudly, saying: "O dear father! After you, our distress is long. O dear father! After you, our sorrow is long.." Then he came to the grave-site and lifted a handful of its soil. A grave already dug appeared, and so did a pre-constructed shrine... He placed his hands under the Imam's back and said, “In the Name of Allah, and according to the creed of the Messenger of Allah, Allah has said the truth, and so has His Messenger (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household). The will of Allah be done; there is no power nor might except in Allah, the Great.”
Then he took it and went down without being assisted by anyone from among the Banu Asad to whom he said, “I have with me someone who will assist me.”
Once he laid it down in the grave, he put his cheek on his father's sacred neck and said, “Congratulations to the land that contains your pure body, for the world after you is dark whereas the hereafter in your light shall shine. As to the night, it is the harbinger of sleep, while grief remains forever, for Allah shall choose for your Ahl Al-Bayt (Allah's prayers be upon them) your abode wherein you shall abide. From me to you is Salam [peace], O son of the Messenger of Allah, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.” On the grave he wrote: “This is the grave of Al-Hussayn son of ‘Ali son of Abu Taleb, the one whom they killed even as he was a thirsty stranger.”
Then he walked to the body of his uncle, Al-Abbas (peace be upon him), and he saw him in a condition that had left the angels in the heavens' strata baffled and caused the huris to weep even as they were in the chambers of Paradise. He fell upon it kissing his sacred neck and saying, “May the world after you be obliterated, O moon of Banu Hashim, and peace from me to you, O martyr, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.” He dug a grave for him and took him down in it by himself just as he had done to the corpse of his martyred father (peace be upon him). He said to Banu Asad, “There is someone with me to help me.”
Yes, he gave the opportunity to Banu Asad to participate in burying the martyrs, and he assigned for them two places, ordering them to dig two pits in the first of which he buried those slain from Banu Hashim and in the second those slain from among their companions.
Therefore, we must comprehend that Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) has a greater status than all martyrs, that the Imam buried him himself like he did for the Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon them all).
4-Imam As-Sadeq (peace be upon him):
Imam As-Sadeq (peace be upon him) used to praise his uncle Al-Abbas and pay tributes to his heroic situations during the battle of at-Taff:
"My uncle Al-Abbas was clear-sighted and steadfastly faithful. He fought with his brother Al-Hussayn, did very well, and was martyred."
Imam As-Sadeq (peace be upon him) testified that his uncle Al-’Abbas accomplished his duties towards the pledge with God and the loyalty to the Imam of his time utterly. He supported the right party, stood steadfast with his brother in the most intensive circumstances, and did not leave him until he was martyred after he had lost his two hands.
Al-’Abbas was created to be faithful; therefore his clear-sightedness, steadfast faith, valor, submission, belief, loyalty and sincerity were natural elements of his personality and were also the fruit of the unparalleled values of his parents.
5-Imam Al-Mahdi (may Allah hasten his holy reappearance):
The Owner of the Order and Time; Imam Al-Mahdi (may Allah hasten his holy reappearance) addressed Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) as following the Ziyarat Nahiyah Al-Muqaddasah:
"Peace be upon Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas, son of the commander of the believers, the one who protected his brother with his own life, and collected provisions from his past for his future, and lay down his life for Al-Hussayn, faithful unto death; and who strove to bring water for him and his children, but whose arms were both cut off. May Allah curse his murderers, Yazeed bin Ruqaad al-Heeti and Hakeem bin Tufail at-Taai."
In the previous statement, Imam Al-Mahdi praises Al-Abbas for the noble characteristics that he enjoyed, the Imam (peace be upon him) commends Al-Abbas for:
* Preferring his brother, the chief of the martyrs, over himself,
* Supplying himself with the opportunities for this life and for the life to come. This is an indication to his piety, God-fearing nature and support for the ‘right’ and its people,
* Sacrificing his brothers, sons and himself for Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him),
* Protecting his brother with his soul, and
* His efforts to fetch water to his brother and his harem when the opposite party surrounded the Euphrates so as to prevent the party of Imam Al-Hussayn from having water even for their children and women.
Al-Abbas Fetches Water for Ahl Al Bayt (peace be upon them)
It is stated in the history that on the seventh of the sacred month of Muharram, Abu Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) was anguished to see the children and women of Ahl Al-Bayt distressed because of thirst. He declared his readiness to fetch water by force. He therefore took thirty horsemen and twenty warriors and attacked the siege made by the enemy army on the Euphrates River, Nafi' Bin Hilal Al-Muradi, one of the most faithful companions of Imam Al-Hussayn faced 'Amru Bin Al-Hajjaj Al-Zubaydi, one of the criminals of Karbala battle, and who was in charge of guarding the Euphrates, so he said to Nafi':
What brought you here?
he said: We came to drink the water that you prohibited us
He replied: You can drink..
Nafi' then replied: I drink and Al-Hussayn and the rest of his companions are thirsty ?
The criminal said: No way that they drink. We are here to prohibit them from the water!
But this, did not stop the heroes from the companions of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), and mocked of his words, they broke into the Euphrates to fill their water skins. 'Amru Bin Al-Hajjaj railed in their faces with a detachment of his soldiers, but the hero of Karbala; Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon them) and Nafi' Bin Hilal encountered a battalion of the Umayyad army.
However, the two parties did not encounter any casualty. The result was that Al-Abbas and his companions reached the river and filled up the twenty skins they had with water and came back.
Since that day, or maybe before, Al-Abbas was given the honorable name of ‘as-Saqqaa - the provider of water’.
His role in At-Taf
Grant of Reprieve for Al-Abbas
In addition to their numerous mean and inhuman means to weaken the party of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), Shemr ibn Thi’l-Jawshan obtained a grant of reprieve to Al-Abbas and his full brothers from Ubaidullah son of Marjana. This callous trial was intended to take Al-Abbas and his full brothers away from the battle and make them forsake their brother. Hence, Shemr stopped before the army of the Imam and shouted, “Where are the sons of our sister? Where are Al-Abbas and his full brothers?”
Al-Abbas and his brothers kept silent to avoid answering him, but the Imam asked them to answer and see what for he had come. Only then they stood before Shemr and said, “What do you want, son of Thi’l-Jawshan?” He said, “I have taken for you a grant of reprieve.”
As they heard his shameless words they shouted in his face, “Curse be on you and curse on your grant of reprieve. How dare you say such words, while son of God’s Messenger is not safe from danger?”
These words were enough to express their real situation; they were ready to protect the Imam until he was safe or they lost their lives.
It was afternoon on Thursday when the vanguards of the Umayyad army came forward for fighting against the Ahl Al-Bayt. Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) was sitting near his tent with the sword in his hand when Abu Al-Fadl Al-Abbas turned his face and said, “They have come to you.” The Imam then asked his brother to identify their intents. He said to him: “May I sacrifice myself for you, brother! Ride on and meet them to ask about their intentions.”
With twenty horsemen, Al-Abbas hurried towards that army and asked what they wanted. “The Emir has ordered us to call you to submit to his orders, otherwise, we will fight you,” they answered.
As Al-Abbas turned back to tell his brother about their intention, Habib ibn Muzhahir delivered a sermon to that army in which he admonished and warned them against the divine punishment they would face if they fight against the family of the Prophet. However, some of them answered him impudently.
When he heard the words of his brother, Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) said to him, “Go back to them and try your best to delay them until tomorrow morning so that this night, we will pray to our Lord who knows that I love praying to Him, reciting His Book and supplicating to Him.”
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) conveyed these words to the Umayyad army. Omar ibn Saad, because he feared that others would bear his situation to the Emir, offered the suggestion to Shemr who was his only competitor. The other however did not say anything, but Amr ibn al-Hajjaj intruded, “How strange this is! Even if they are from the non-Arabs we will respond to their demand!!”
As others supported Amr’s opinion, Omar ibn Saad accepted to postpone waging war against the camp of the Imam. Thus, the fighting was postponed for a night and Omar ibn Saad’s armies waited to see whether the Imam would respond to them or fight.
On that night, Imam Al-Hussayn gathered his companions and household and foretold them of the fate that they would face the next day. He also permitted them to leave him since the other party wanted him, not anyone else.
As soon as the Imam finished his words, Abu Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him), representing the Ahl Al-Bayt, said to his brother: “Why should we do so? Is it for that we will live after you? No! We supplicate to the Lord to forbid it.”
The same situation was shown from the sons of ‘Aqeel and the other companions who showed their readiness to sacrifice their souls for their Imam.
Hence, all spent that night with worship and acts of obedience to Allah. They were waiting for the dawn of that day on which they would obtain their highest goal in this life, martyrdom.
Day of Ashura

Day of Ashura; the tenth of Muharram, was unique in its tragedies, misfortunes, and disasters. On that day, the Ahl Al-Bayt (peace be upon them) had to suffer the ever most horrible adversity of this world. Hence, it is certainly the day of grief.
From early morning, the Imam (peace be upon him) left his tent and saw in front of him innumerable warriors and horses fill up the desert and unsheathe their swords for shedding his blood. Thus, the Imam asked for a copy of the holy Qur’an to put it on the head and raise his hands upward for supplicating to his Lord for seeking His refuge.
He then decided to deliver a speech before those troops so that they would be fully acquainted with the reality of the situation. Hence, he rode on, went towards them, and raised his voice with the finest words of wisdom so that most of them, at least, would hear him.
As his harem could hear some of his words, they wept and cried, but the Imam asked his brother Al-Abbas and his son Ali (peace be upon both of them) to go to them and order them to stop it. He then continued with such bright words that should have led every deviant to the right path. However, the Umayyad army could not understand the Imam’s words because they were too ignorant to understand anything other than criminality. In addition, they could not say a single word as an answer.
The Imam (peace be upon him) then addressed some of them and reminded them of the missives they had sent to him, but those individuals denied the whole matter!
Qays ibn al-Ashaath then asked the Imam to submit to the Umayyads, but the Imam refused declaring his unchangeable situation: “No by Allah, I will never submit to them like the humble and will not flee like slaves.”
The Imam’s companions, then, spoke similar words before the Umayyad army, but without any use.
Finally, the Imam decided to advise them again so that none of them would excuse he had not known the matter clearly. He opened a copy of the holy Qur’an on the head, wore the turban of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household), proceeded towards them, and said:
“So then, fie and grief be on you, O group. When you appealed for our help grievously and we hurried for your help exhaustingly, you unsheathed against us a sword that had been in our right hands and ignited against us the fire that we had struck against your and our enemy.
You therefore formed groups surrounding your allies and became the support of your enemies although they did not spread justice among you and you lost any hope in them. In addition, you noticed no heresy or new opinion that came out of us. Why did you -woe to you!- not leave us when swords were sheathed, malice was hidden, and the decision was not taken. But you hurried to the sedition like locusts and fell on it like the falling of butterflies (in fire).
Damn and away with the idols of the Ummah, irregulars of the parties, deserters of the Book, expectorants of the Shaitan, distorters of the meanings, extinguishers of the traditions, avowers of the bastards, and the mockers who divided the Qur’an believing in some parts and rejecting others.
By God I swear, your disloyalty is expected because it is entwined with your arteries and it recurred in your origins. You therefore are the bitterest fruit that causes its caretaker to choke and gives good taste for its usurper. God curse the disloyal ones who disregard their firm oaths after they have already appointed God as their Guarantor.
The bastard, son of the bastard, has forced me to choose one of two things - either fighting or ignominy. Ignominy is impossible for us. Allah, His Apostle, the (faithful) believers, chaste laps, jealous noses (individuals), and noble souls (personalities) refuse for us to prefer obedience to the mean to the death of the honorable.
I am advancing to them with this family despite the alliance of the enemies, their great numbers, and the betrayal of the supporters. They will soon ride their horses, war will flare up, and the necks will be lapped. My father (peace be upon him) foretold me about so. So, plan against me without delay. I trust God who is my Lord as well as yours. It is God who controls the destiny of all living creatures. It is my Lord who knows the right path.
O Allah, prevent them from the drops of the heavens and impose upon them years of draught like these which you imposed on the people in the time of Prophet Joseph, and set up upon them the man of Thaqif as absolute master so that he will treat them unjustly and make them drink from bitter water, for they have belied and disappointed us. You are certainly our Lord. On You we rely, in You we trust, and to You everything returns.”
At these moments, the conscience of al-Hurr ibn Yazid woke up. He began to think of his destiny if he would fight against Imam al-Husayn who represented the right party and the true religion of God. Finally, he decided to join the Imam. He went to Omar ibn Saad and said: “Do you really want to fight against this man?”
“Yes I do,” answered Omar, “I want to fight against him as intensely as possible.”
“Why do you not respond to his calls and accept one of the options he had offered?” asked al-Hurr.
“I would do if it is my right to choose. But the matter is not mine. It is your Emir’s,” answered Omar.
Only then al-Hurr realized that Omar ibn Saad was fully ready to fight Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him); therefore, he changed direction towards the Imam and proceeded as he felt sorry for his past deeds against the Imam (peace be upon him).
When the Imam conferred upon him with pardon, al-Hurr turned the face towards the troops of Omar ibn Saad and went on addressing to them words of reproach and blame for disappointing the Imam. Anyhow, al-Hurr’s words did not find any place in the hearts of those troops.
His position before the martyrdom
The War

As Omar ibn Saad anticipated that other commanders would copy al-Hurr, he hurried towards the Imam’s camp and threw an arrow towards him shouting, “Be the witnesses. I am the first to throw Al-Hussayn!”
This was the opening to hundreds of arrows which were shot towards the Imam. Seeing the situation, the Imam (peace be upon him) turned to his companions and said, “Stand up, generous people. These arrows are your enemies’ messengers to you.”
Hence, thirty-two horsemen and forty warriors had to encounter tens of thousands. However, this little party would not stop against those huge well-equipped numbers and showed unprecedented scenes of courage and bravery.
Then Omar ibn Saad gave the orders of waging a wide campaign during which all the detachments of the Umayyad army fought against the Imam’s companions. Although half of the Imam’s companions were killed during that campaign, they combated extremely courageously and caused great losses to the Umayyad army.
After this general campaign, the other companions of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) began to wage individual campaigns against the other party. In fact, their unparalleled heroism frightened the whole camp of the Umayyad army and caused it great losses; therefore, Amr ibn al-Hajjaj cried at them, “Do you know against whom you are fighting? You are fighting against the most courageous horsemen of this country. They will keep killing anyone of you who intends to face them. By God I swear, if you only throw stones at them, you will kill them.”
Omar ibn Saad agreed on Amr’s opinion and ordered his forces to leave facing those heroes. He then gave the orders of waging a general attack against the companions of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him). Nevertheless, the companions caused great losses to the attacking forces to the degree that Urwa ibn Qays asked the general commander of the army to supply him with more men and weapons.
Omar ibn Saad then had to call Hossayn ibn Numair and supply him with five hundred bowmen who could wound the riding animals of the Imam’s companions. Thus, all the companions, including al-Hurr ibn Yazid, had to fight against their enemies on feet. This fighting was described by historians as the fieriest battle all over history; it continued until midday.
In the midst of that horrible scene of fighting, Abu-Thumama as-Saidi, one of Imam Al-Hussayn’s companions, raised his head to the sky then turned his face towards the Imam and told about the time of the Dhuhr prayer. As a result, the Imam asked his companions to demand with cease fighting so as they would offer the prayer. They responded to this demand, but as soon as the Imam and his companions stood erect for the prayer, the Umayyad army began throwing darts at them.
Saeed al-Hanafi made his body as the armor that protected the Imam, while he was praying, from these darts. When the Imam finished his prayer, Saeed was heavily wounded that he fell dead. The other companions continued fighting for sake of their Imam courageously until they all were killed.
It is worth mentioning that Al-Abbas ibn Ali participated in these campaigns and fought bravely and was given the missions of saving the companions when they were encircled by the Umayyad army.
After the companions, it was the turn of the youth from the Prophet’s household. The first one to advance was the young man who was the most similar to Prophet Mohammad (Allah's prayers be upon him and his holy Household) in creation, morals, and personality. That youth was Ali al-Akbar son of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon both of them).
The Imam felt very sad when he knew for certain that his son would be proceeding to fight. He therefore raised his beard towards the heavens and complained to the Lord against the gang who had fought against him and would be ready to kill his dearest one.
The Imam as well as the harem of the Prophet’s household saw off Ali al-Akbar with tears, cries, and moaning. The youth proceeded declaring the principles for which he was fighting and his tremendous determination to protect the religion of God even if this would cost him his life. He then encountered the enemies and showed indescribable courage and heroism to the degree that historians have described his fighting by saying, “‘Ali’s fighting reminded the enemies of the attacks of his grandfather Amir ul-Muminin.”
In the midst of the fighting, ‘Ali was seriously thirsty because the enemies had deprived them of water. He therefore returned to his father and asked for some water. But the father had nothing to do. He did not have a single drop of water to give to his son. Painfully he apologized from his son and promised that the Prophet would very soon give him a drink of water that would save him from thirst forever.
The young Ali Akbar then went to the battlefield again and fought courageously despite many wounds that he had on his body. The whole camp of the Umayyad army complained about the great losses that the young son of Imam Al-Hussayn caused to them; therefore, Murra ibn Munqith decided to kill him. So, he stabbed him with the spear from the back and struck him with his sword heavily on his head.
Ali held fast on his horse’s neck since he thought that the horse would take him towards his father’s camp. Unfortunately, the horse took him towards the enemies’ camp, who encircled him and cut his body into pieces. The air carried the son’s cries to his father who hurried to him and found him in the last sparks of life. He put his cheek on his son’s body which had been cut to pieces and shed tears for him.
In this horrible situation, Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) was with his brother and felt the same painful feelings for the great catastrophe that inflicted their camp by the martyrdom of Ali. Zaynab, the mistress of the Prophet’s harem, moaned for the martyrdom of her nephew and the Imam was touched by that painful situation.
After that, the young descendants of ‘Aqeel ibn Abi-Talib rushed for jihad so as to sacrifice their souls for their leader. Like their forefathers, they fought courageously and caused great losses to the Umayyad army. However, they were all martyred. These were nine young men.
Then, it was the turn of descendants of Imam Al-Hassan (peace be upon him). They also pushed themselves for protecting their uncle and defending their religion. Among them was Al-Qasim whom is described as the moon in brightness. Before he fought against the enemies, he had declared, “My uncle Al-Hussayn will not be killed while I am alive.”
The Imam (peace be upon him) however did not permit Al-Qasim to fight, but the young man insisted importunately and went on kissing his uncle’s hands and feet; and and begged him to let him fight. Hence, the Imam had to permit him with weeping eyes and a burning heart.
Like the other heroes of the Hashemites, Al-Qasim fought bravely and killed a number of the Umayyad army. In the midst of the fighting, his sandal thong was cut. As he bent down to repair it, one of the criminals of the Umayyad army, out of his disdain seized that opportunity and struck Al-Qasim on the head. He fell down and called for his uncle who hurried towards him and killed that criminal.
The Imam then carried the dead body of his nephew and placed it beside the dead bodies of his son and the other martyrs.
Then sons of Zaynab, daughter of Imam Ali went for fighting. They also were killed. Then none remained except the brothers of Imam Al-Hussayn.
Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) was watching all these crises and misfortunes patiently and was waiting for the proper opportunity to begin fighting against the enemies and take revenge upon them.
After the martyrdom of the youth of the Prophet’s household, Al-Abbas turned towards his full brothers and said to them: “Brothers, proceed for fighting so that I will be sure that you have done sincerely for sake of Allah and His Messenger and I will surely avenge your blood. You have no children.”
He then turned his face towards his full brother Abdullah and said: “Proceed for fighting until I will see your martyrdom and offer you as sacrifice for Allah.” All his brethren welcomed his call and went for fighting against the enemies courageously. One by one, they all were killed before their elder brother Al-Abbas who stood near their dead bodies and shed tears for these bright faces.
The martyrdom
When Al-Abbas noticed the loneliness of his brother and the martyrdom of his companions and household, he advanced towards his brother and asked for permission to fight. The Imam did not permit him and he said with sad tone, “You are the holder of my standard…”
Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), in fact, felt security and protection so long as Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) was with him. But Al-Abbas insisted on the permission and said, “I can no longer stand it. I want to take avenge upon those hypocrites.”
As the Imam had nothing to do other than permitting his brother to fight against the enemies, he asked him first to try to get water for the harem and children who were gravely thirsty. Hence, Al-Abbas directed towards the Umayyad army with words of admonition and warned against God’s punishment.
He directed his speech to their commander: “Omar ibn Saad, this is Al-Hussayn son of the daughter of Allah’s Messenger. You have killed his companions and household. These now are his children and harem. They are thirsty and I ask you to give them water. Nevertheless, he is still calling you to let him go to Rome or India and leave Hijaz and Iraq for you…”
None from the Umayyad army could answer Al-Abbas except Shemr who said to him, “Son of Abu-Turab, if the whole surface of this earth is water controlled by us, we will not give you a single drop of it before you submit to the leadership of Yazid.”
Hence, Al-Abbas had to report this situation to his brother.
Meanwhile, he heard the cries of the children because of thirst and saw the change in their faces and the dryness of their lips. Therefore, he decided to fetch water for them. He rode his horse, took a waterskin with him, and rode towards the River Euphrates. The Umayyad troops fled and he alone occupied the banks of the river. His heart was as hot as fire because of thirst, but when he extended his hand to the water and tried to drink, he remembered the thirst of his brother, as well as his children and harem; hence, he threw away the water from his hand and said:
My soul, you must be preceded by Al-Hussayn
And you must not continue to exist after him
Al-Hussayn is about to drink from cups of death
While you want to drink from this cold water
No, by Allah! This is not my religion!
After this tremendous demonstration of altruism that exceeded any other in all dimensions of time and space, Al-Abbas filled the skin carrier he had with him with water and took it on the way back to his brother’s camp.
In the meantime, the enemies surrounded him from every side and tried to prevent him from taking that water to his brother’s camp. Al-Abbas spared no efforts in fighting against them and caused them big losses.
Chased by terror and fear, the enemies were fleeing away from Al-Abbas who was like his father in courageous situations. However, one of the filthy hypocrites of Kufa waylaid him from behind a date palm tree, striking him from the back on his right hand, and cut it. Nevertheless, Al-Abbas the hero did not care for so when he held the standard in his left hand and went on saying:
By Allah, if you cut my right hand
I will keep on defending my religion
And that true-tongued Imam
Who is the son of the pure Prophet
A few moments later, another man hidden behind a tree, struck Al-Abbas with a sword on his left hand, and cut it. Although he was bleeding and suffering these wounds besides thirst, Al-Abbas held the waterskin with his teeth and hurried trying to take the water to his brother’s children and harem.
Meanwhile, a spear hit the waterskin and caused that water to dribble onto the ground. Seeing this, Al-Abbas was struck with sadness and perplexity. He did not know what to do. A few moments later, another man attacked him with an iron post and struck on the head. Al-Abbas fell to the ground and shouted, “Peace be upon you, Abu-Abdullah!”
As the Imam heard these words of farewell, he hurried toward the River al-Alqami where Al-Abbas fell. He pushed himself through the troops of the enemies and threw himself on the body of his brother. Expressing the grave misfortune that he suffered by the martyrdom of his brother, Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) wailed, “My spine is now broken and I have lost everything and my enemies are rejoicing at my misfortune.”
No one can describe the real feelings that Imam Al-Hussayn felt after the martyrdom of Al-Abbas. However, historians have mentioned that he, as he was leaving the dead body of his brother, could hardly move his feet. He went towards the camp while he was wiping off his tears. His daughter Sukayna received him with the question, “Where is my uncle Al-Abbas?”
Here the Imam wept and told her about her uncle’s martyrdom. The daughter had nothing to do other than moan aloud. The situation was more difficult for Zaynab who put her hand on her heart and shouted aloud, “O, brother Al-Abbas. We have certainly lost everything as we lost you.”
It was surely grave misfortune for Imam Al-Hussayn and the Prophet’s harem whose cries and moaning for their guardian and protector filled that place. The Imam (peace be upon him) also participated with them in weeping as he cried:
“We have surely lost everything as we lost you, O Abu Al-Fadl Al-Abbas.”