History of the Holy Shrine
Stages of construction, reconstruction and development of the Al-Abbas's (p) Holy Shrine
The highness of the minarets and golden domes of the holy shrines is the first thing that the visitor will see when he reaches the outskirts of the holy city of Karbala. The shrine of the master of the martyrs, the Father of the Free Al-Hussayn Ibn Ali (peace be upon both of them), and of his brother the bearer of the banner, Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him), who are both the core of the city and its vibrant heart that is filled with life, revolution and pride, and a constant reminder of the true message of heaven in spite of tyrants.
These holy shrines inspire the visitors the real meanings of heroism, selflessness and steadfastness on the true principles brought by the Master of Messengers Muhammad (prayers and Allah's peace be upon him and his holy Household) as its highest meanings were embodied in the Taf of Karbala in the greatest epic in history, without which the b
right truth of Islam could not remain. so it became the embodiment of the truth of Islam ...
In this scene, the visitor's eyes gush of tears after remembering the tragedy and the painful ordeal. Most of the visitors start their Ziyarah by visiting the holy shrine of the Moon of Bani Hashem, the Pride of Adnan Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) as he is the minister and the gate to his brother, Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), and he who want the house, enters to it by its door.
The visitor then, performs the rituals of the Ziyarah of Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him) in his shrine, which is the place where he was martyred on the tenth of Muharram of the year 61 AH, which is located close to the Euphrates, in a separate place of the burial of his supporters from the family of Imam Al-Hussayn and his faithful companions who were martyred with him, and who were buried by the clan of Bani Asad under the direct supervision of Imam Ali Ibn Al-Hussayn As-Sajjad (peace be upon both of them), in one tomb few meters at the east of the tomb of the Master of Martyrs (peace be upon him). As the people of that clan could not lift the pure body of Aba Al-Fadl Al-Abbas (peace be upon him) to bury him with the other martyrs -including three of his brothers- because he was hit and stabbed with so many swords, spears and others, which made it difficult to carry his pure body without being harmed. Imam As-Sajjad (peace be upon him) ordered then to bury him in the same place where he was, after falling from his horse.
Concerning the historical stages experienced by the shrine of Aba Al-Fadl (peace be upon him), we must note that all those who built the holy shrine of Imam Al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) have also built the Al-Abbas's (p) holy shrine, so both passed through almost the same stages of reconstruction and development. The historians mentioned that those who carried out these actions and improvements were Sultans, princes and rich benefactors. But in the recent years that followed the fall of the tyrant on the 9th of Aprile 2003, there has been a radical change that formed a turning point from the previous stages in terms of reconstruction and development as the legitimate authority returned to the management of the shrine supervised by the supreme religious authority in the holy city of Najaf. The administration carried out then works of development and great additions to the holy shrine, and the Iraqi employees of the holy shrine became those who execute some of its projects and supervise the others, while those works were carried out previously by staff from outside the shrine, Iraqi or foreigners, individuals and companies, and resulted delay and waste of funds of the shrine, which is not the case with the current administration.
In the following are the historical stages experienced by the holy shrine in terms of reconstruction and development, divided according the Hijra centuries. Noting that those paragraphs will include even the smallest actions, such as the decoration or small benefits, as it is only after the fall of the former tyrant regime that large reconstruction works started including big, medium and small projects, which made this new phase a historical turning point - as mentioned previously- parallel to the size of the projects that took place in the shrine during two centuries or more.

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1: taken from a long narration took from (Kamel Ziyarat) of Ja'far Ibn Qawlawayh, p444 as mentioned by Al-Majlissi in Behar Al-Anwar ch.45 p179-180..
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First Century
Second Century
Third Century
Fourth Century
Fifth Century
Sixth Century
Seventh Century
Eighth Century
Ninth Century
Tenth Century
Eleventh Century
Twelfth Century
Thirteenth Century
Fourteenth
Fifteenth Century
Stages of demolition and aggression on the Al-Abbas's (p) Holy Shrine
Killing and terrorizing its visitors, vandalism and attacks on its facilities and symbols of holiness, the features that have accompanied the Holy Shrines of the holy city of Karbala since they their foundation after folding the military page of the immortal epic of Al-Taff on the tenth of Muharram 61 AH, even when those holy sepulchers were just simple marks, such as those put for ordinary graves.
The observer of that series of many incidents, which still ongoing up today with different styles, pointing to the fear of tyrants and the followers of ways of misguidance, of these great symbols which cleansed this country and inspired the Liberals inside and in other countries of the globe, which seems that is reminds who assault it with the obsoleteness of his approach and the imminent demise of his persecution , especially if he was a rulers, as they try to conceal its marks, and
to block the sun of reality by their sieve of falsehood, as it is over ages - and being a witness in the present time - and before all, inciting the oppressed to rise up against tyrants despite the lack of advocates and the weakness of preparing and getting victory ,even after while.
The evidence of history confirms the degradation of those, who had thought that with their works of assault ,they will be able to extinguish the light of God to be able to extend their ownership and power, perish is what they did and the shame and loss shall be their share, supporting what has been emphasized by Lady Zainab ,daughter of the faithful Imam Ali (peace be upon them) to our master, Imam Ali bin Hussein Zein El Abidine (peace be upon him) saying: «they will set up a banner to the grave of your father Hussein is not considered its impact and is not forgiven its painting on the dark nights and days and let the imams of infidelity and portrayal of misguidance to erase and conceal it, for its impact will be but visible and its case but highness» (1) , and ,also, her speech peace be upon her to him peace be upon him saying «God has taken covenant of the people of this nation who are not known by the pharaohs of this nation and they are known by the people of the heavens, they are collecting these organs and these sporadic stained corpses to bury them, and setting up this land (Al-Taff) a banner to the grave of your father the master of martyrs is not consider its impact is not forgiven its painting on the dark nights and days »… up to when she says…« and then Allah sends some people of your nation who are not known by infidels, have not been involved in the blood by saying , doing or intention the come to bury their bodies, and establish a fee to the tomb of the master of martyrs in that Land (Al-Taff) be a banner to the people of right and a reason for believers to win »(2) It would be hardly possible to state all of those accidents if we could count them since its inception, but we will try hard to state what we recorded of them (what is realized all, is not left the whole) and we will divide incidents according to the Hijri centuries.
Perhaps the period that elapsed on the holy tomb after the epic of (Al-Taff) to the end of the Umayyad dynasty, was the quieter role elapsed on the holy tomb because they were satisfied with - according to the appearance - with their crimes and sins which has no precedent in history, done all against Imam Hussein and his family and enthusiasts (PBUT) in that incident and the subsequent sufferings of captivity, prompting Abdul Malik bin Marwan to write to his viceroy Hajjaj bin Yusuf saying to him:
((save me out of the blood of the sons of Abi Talib, I saw death panicked of the sons of Harb when they shed their blood)), and Al-Hajjaj had curried out this order fearing fearing the demise of their ownership, not fearing God!!!, avoiding the blood of Ahlulbayt (PBUT), and for this reason or others the Holy Shrines of the holy city of Karbala has not faced any kind of assault by the Umayyads as the Abbasids had done then (3), except that those set up stations armed heavily with ammunition, weapons and men on the outskirts of Karbala to chase visitors and punish them with the most harmful kinds of murder and crucifixion and the Abbasid dynasty completed that following the extinction of the dynasty of the Umayyads. The Abbasids had made the worst laws to expose to the Holy Tomb, demolishing it and what is around.

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(1) A section of a long narration in full visits book: by son of Qolouet p. 260-266.
(2) Ibid.
(3) Adapted from: History of Karbala and the tomb Hussain peace be upon him / Dr. Abdel-Jawad,: p. 192-193.
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Second Century
Third Century
Ninth Century
Thirteenth Century
Fifteenth Century
Servants of the Al-Abbas's (p) Holy Shrine
Because of the importance of the existence of an administrative system to manage this sacred place and the development, perpetuation and preservation of its assets, and organize the Ziyarat of tens of millions of people who come to it annually, it was necessary to have a person at the top of the administrative pyramid, whether the pyramid is small or simple.
And because the shrines of imams and their children (peace be upon them), including the shrine of Aba al-Fadl al-Abbas (peace be upon him) is of the public endowments which jurisdiction is due to the legitimate ruler as evidenced by the narrated evidences, the appointment of a person who acts as an agent of the legitimate ruler, as long as his decisions need to be in accordance with the rules of legitimacy, and the shrine has passed unfortunately, in some years of the last two centuries of legitimacy in the administration beca
use of the interference of dictator or occupant governments in the appointment of the responsible without return to the legitimate ruler (the supreme religious authority), and this is what happened until the fall of the ruling regime in Iraq in 2003.More
The Gueldar
This word was known and famous for the responsible of the administration and the Commissioner in the management of the holy shrine, which is an old Ottoman term also called the (Khazen) or (Saden), the same attribute that is a cause of pride for he who has it, as it was inherited from father to son, being the pride of the family or tribe, as in the case of the prince of Hajj and the building of the Sacred Mosque since ancient times, and these roles were monopolized by Sayeds of some houses of Karbala, who deserved more than others this responsibility and honor thanks to their title of Sayed, which was a common custom in that era. Other families and houses of Karbala participated in this service out of pride of the title of being servants of the visitors of the holy shrines of the Karbala. These families have shared these roles and each of them was famous for a certain task, and the servi ces each of them provides were most known that their own families or tribes names, for example the house of Al-Gueldar, the house of al-Shamma' [candles], the house of Qandil [cresset], the house of al-Kishwan and others.
After the date of 9/4/2003, a committee was established to manage the al-Abbas's (p) holy shrine, and it was formed temporarily in both holy shrines o Imam al-Hussayn and of Aba al-Fadl al-Abbas (peace be upon both of them) by the supreme religious authority, which dealt with this matter; as well as that it was urgent and can not be delayed in order to avoid the sudden administrative vacuum at the same time of the danger that raged after the fall of the ruling regime, as there is no more honest and legitimate from the highest religious authority to address this matter, to be formed weeks after that (High Committee for the management of holy shrines In the holy city of Karbala) in a written way by the supreme religious authority in Najaf. The supreme committee became the legitimate authority of the holy shrines. It appointed a person as the supervisor in each of the holy shrines, to carry the executive tasks of what is decided by the high committee. And both management of the two holy shrines continued to work separately and independently until 20/7/2006, as the supreme religious authority in Najaf approved the appointment of the Secretary-General for the holy shrine in accordance with the new law governing the holy shrines of Figure (19) issued in the end of 2005, and thus this new title replaced the title of Gueldar or Saden. It was the custom and according to these laws and regulations that have been in force for years in this approach and the role in the Holy Karbala and the administration and servants of the two holy shrines of Imam al-Hussayn and of Aba al-Fadl al-Abbas (peace be upon both of them), and the administration matter of these holy shrines and sanctuaries became at the hand of the legitimate ruler who gathers all conditions without reference to the ruling regime as it was in the past, but within the legal framework set by the Iraqi constitution.
As we are talking about the shrine of Aba al-Fadl al-Abbas (peace be upon him) and his holy shrine, its administration and its servants, we will show the names of those who has the title of Saden of this holy shrine, according to the specific dates since the eleventh century after Hijrah.
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The date of the disconnection of the administrations of the two holy shrines
The historical sources told us that the management and care of the two shrines was by the custodians or the supervisor in the holy sanctuary of Imam al-Hussayn (peace be upon him), and his representative or deputy is at the al-Abbas's (p) holy shrine. This situation continued since the first century. The honorary name for this task was the Gueldar of the two holy shrines, which headquarter is in the holy sanctuary of Imam al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) where he receives the dignitaries, travellers, kings and sultans, which was witnessed by the documents or the treasures dedicated to the two holy shrines, and this Sudna [the human resources system] has had an effective force followed by the actual authority in the city to maintain and defend the security of the holy city, and succeeded in leading the popular forces of the city to defend it face to the Wahhabi attacks in the years 1216 AH and 1220, as well as during the attack of Naguib Pasha in 1258 AH, known as the "Ghadir Blood". This institution reached the peak of power when the Union of Nobles and the Government of the country formally in the fourth decade From that century, however, this force quickly deteriorated after that the city was hit during the attack of Ghadir Blood. The Sudna was taken then for the first time in more than two centuries, by men who are not from Alawi families. The Sudna remained in their hands until the end of the Ottoman rule and beyond (12). And the Sudna of the two holy shrines continued united until the time of the Sayed Murtadha al-Sayed Mostafa Dea' Uddin (Aal Dhawi) who sought to separate the Sudna of the al-Abbas's (p) holy shrine from the one of the Imam al-Hussayn's (p) holy shrine to make it a self-contained Sudna in the same way as the other Sudna, which happened and the two Sudnas were separated and each of them cared and supervised its holy sanctuary in which it is located since then up to this day, except for the period of almost three months following 9/4/2003, in which the responsible for the Sudna was the representative of the supreme religious authority in Karbala. His executive authority is an administrative committee at each shrine, followed by three years in which the Sudna was a tripartite committee charged by the Supreme religious authority in Najaf and was assigned to perform the task of legitimization in both the holy shrines of Imam al-Hussayn and of al-Abbas (peace be upon both of them) and appointed agents at each shrine as executive directors of its development and administrative programs. The committee was dissolved when the work was developed under the name "supervisor". After the development of the work, and after the death of the third, the committee members became Senior Official separated from each other under the name of the General Secretariat of each shrine, thus restoring independence to the Sudna once again on 20/7/2006.

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(12) - Ruling families and administration and judiciary men in Iraq / d. Emad Abdel Salam Rauf: p. 364.
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Restoration of the legitimate authority to the management of the Holy Shrines after a long time
A group of good believers from the people of Karbala, voluntarily worked to protect and secure the movement of visitors to the Holy Shrines ,that was after the fall of disorder of tyrant ,Saddam, in 9/4/2003 M,they feared about Iraq's Holy Shrines generally, because of the circumstances that accompanied the collapse of state institutions and lack of security, and gathering of evil forces in Iraq, particularly from extremist groups who have placed their top priority about the destruction of those Holy Shrines and kill their visitors. Also the reason for such voluntary work is the especial status that the Holy Shrines in holy city of Karbala have in the hearts of free men in all parts of the world, not only the Muslim followers of the School of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), also because of the greater concentration of the evil forces to such Shrines. They started with the approach of t he largest visitation after they got the way of freedom, It is Forty Day Visitation (Alarbeen). The works of those groups was under the guidance of, Sheikh Abdel Mahdi al-Karbalai,who was also help the faithful in the running of the holy city with other administrative ,service and security, etc., actually this million visitation succeeded it was a turning point to the enemy and make them re-arrange their plans according to what they have seen of a popular organization for a visitation needs potentials of competent state ,it arranged in conditions of no security and non-state who imposed by American occupation after the fall of the hardest dictatorships of modern times.
Managements of the Holy Shrines have been formed under direct supervision of Sheikh al Karbalai in 04/25/2003, and then reinforced by a written order issued in 05/25/2003. Al Karbalai has become since the fall of the tyrant the Supreme leader to the Holy Shrines for 4 and a half months .The management of the Holy Shrines also helped by sayyed Ahmad al Safy at that time.After that formed the committee overseeing the management of the Holy Shrines in Holy Karbala,with the followers of Sayyed Muhammad HusainTabatabai, Sayyed Ahmad al Safy and Sheikh Abdel Mahdi al-Karbalai,who represented the inaugural legitimacy Commission to the Holy Shrines, and thus returned the missing Legitimacy for nearly two centuries , where the Commission has listed on the authorization written of the religious authority in Najaf, represented by ayatollah, the Head of religious authority, sayyed Ali Husseini al-Sistani (long live) ,sayyed Mohammed Said al-Hakim (long live), Sheikh Mohammed Ishaq Al-Fayad ( long live) and Sheikh Bashir Hussain Najafi (long live), where a Council to manage the Holy Shrines in holy city of Karbala called (the Supreme management Commission of the Holy Shrines in holy city of Karbala), represented by the mentioned above, who in turn formed the administrative structure at each Holy Shrine in 24 Rajab 1424 AH corresponding to 9/21/2003 and the other for an area between the Holy Shrines and preferably on the committee of a legal nature governmental decision of the Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs (changed to Shiite and Sunni council) in the 10/01/2003, and so become each Head represents the top of the administrative hierarchy and the members of the Board of Directors, which is used for the distribution of tasks and issue instructions and regulations issued by the legislator - which is the reference in the work - and follow-up implementation, and formed structural developed also from the committees responsible for each sector of the business follows by sections and then divisions responsible for certain work, there were no such service and development places already existed , as construction and reconstruction rarely was done before the fall of the tyrant - by contracting and engineering work from outside the Holy Shrines and become under this cadres administration of the holy shrine, Foreign Affairs when it need it will be supervised by the Management of the holy shrine.

The working committees created in the Holy Shrines under the new legitimacy administration before applying the Law of Administration for the holy sites and Shiite holy shrines with issue19 for the year 2005 and that on 20.07.2007 consisting of: the Committee on protection and care of the Holy Shrine, the Commission on projects and maintenance, committee vows and gifts, the Committee on Media, Commission servants, and forks for those committees the following sections: external protection to Holy Shrine, arranging Holy Mausoleum, accounts, stores, the host, Lost property, counseling and religious guidance.

After application of the Act and the establishment of a general secretariat of the Holy Shrine,administrative structure has been divided into sections instead of previous commissions then divisions and units, where some of those commissions turned into sections and incorporated into the committees with the other and formed new Section fit the structure approved in this Act, and set up other divisions and units of branched for those sections, where the Holy Shrine becomes as a bee hive, every individual members knows his duty, and help others, to move the Holy Shrine in short time ,weak security conditions and political complex to the rank of relatively advanced in terms structure development, cultural , Islamic Propagation , service and other in comparison with their counterparts if they were in the same circumstances, especially if we know that this young administration established the vast majority of those formations service after that were not, educational, religious, cultural, media and engineering in its various aspects and other formations, where there are exist only cleaning and the formation regulates the affairs of electricity and cooling, which was on the side of a very modest and have now changed to the institutions of service, technical, and a great deal of development and administrative structure, under this administration that are still with the employees of the Holy Shrine continue their work, we can say that the current structure management of the Holy Shrine compared to what was before the fall of the tyrant is nothing, the achievements of five years for this range to such departments and divisions within five years after the fall of the tyrant is equivalent to what was achieved in several centuries by previous administrations.

Work is still going on in order to make the Holy Shrine as it is planned by religion authority to be a spring guide to people as it provide them with spiritual and religious things in past and present, while visitors are standing near who sacrificed for the religion, his soul still cared for and spend their needs through its status with Allah.

Therefore, this bright historical stage in the history of the Holy shrine represents a turning point, we need to stop and see what has been its development of an integrated management system consists of sections and divisions and units, some as workshops and to accommodate Iraqi staffs specialized affiliates, encompass all disciplines of engineering, educational, cultural, media,service, medical and others, in the form of service institutions.
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The al-Abbas's (p) Holy Shrine under the new administration
After the presentation of the historical stages of the management of the shrine, as well as the cases through which the city and the holy shrines in Iraq including the al-Abbas's (p) holy shrine, witnessing an increase in the numbers of visitors from all regions, and as a result and depending on the circumstances surrounding this increase in the number of visitors, new burdens were added on the management, which led to the increase of its administrative structure over the days, reaching its largest size after the decision to form a higher committee for its management and then the decision of appointing its Secretary-General represented by Sayed. Ahmad Al-Safi and through this management, the administrative structure has evolved into an integrated institutional system of engineering, service, cultural, educational, administrative, financial and other services that meet the needs of the er a and provides the best services to visitors. The previous structures did not really exist if measured by that current structure, as it was in form of a group of servants whose duty was to store gifts and vows and cleaning, headed by the "Saden", and then in modern times, a division of electricity and cooling was added to only serve the shrine, a structure that was not proportional to the importance of the holy shrine.
The working committees established at the shrine under the new legal administration before the implementation of the law of management of the holy Shiite shrines and sanctuaries No. 19 of 2005 on 20/7/2007 consisting of: the Committee for the protection and care of shrine, the Committee of projects and maintenance, committee of vows and gifts, committee of media and the committee of Sayed servants, and the branches of these committees the following sections: external protection of the shrine, cleanliness of the shrine, accounts, stores, Host restaurant, found objects, and the guidance and religious guidance.
After the implementation of the aforementioned law and the establishment of a general secretariat of the holy shrine, the administrative structure of the holy shrine was divided into departments to replace the previous committees and then divisions and units. Some of these committees were divided into departments and merged with other committees and formed new departments that fit the structure established in this law. The shrine has been transformed into a bee cell in which each member knows his duty and supports others to make the shrine, during a record period, reach a relatively advanced level amid complex security and political conditions, in terms of urban, cultural, rhetorical and service development, specially that this young administration created the vast majority of these service formations after they did not exist, such as educational, religious, cultural, media and engineering in all its aspects and other formations, and the cleaning and electricity affairs section has now become a service and technical institutions with a great development in the administrative structure, under this administration, which is still with the employees of the shrine continue its jihad. And we can say that the achievements of the current administrative structure in five years of this composition of divisions and divisions within five years after the fall of the regime is equivalent to what was accomplished in several centuries by the previous administrations.
The work is continuing to make the shrine - as wanted by the religious authority - a guidance beacon as well as the spiritual and religious education offered earlier and now, when the visitors stand in tribute to he who sacrificed for the religion, the one buried in this land, but whose spirit still take care of them and answers their requests by his intercession to the Almighty.
Therefore, this bright historical stage in the history of the shrine represents a significant turning point thanks to the development of its integrated administrative system that consists of departments, divisions and units, to accommodate the specialized Iraqi staff members, and include under it all the engineering, educational, cultural, media, service, medical and other, in the form of service institutions.
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