The tenth night of Muharram; The Ashura Night:
Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in Iqbal al-A`mal, has mentioned a number of supplicatory prayers and a big number of prayers that are advisably said and offered at this tenth night of Muharram. He has also cited the big rewards of saying and offering these supplications and prayers.
For instance, it is recommended to offer a one hundred unit prayer with Surah al-Fatihah once and Surah al-Tawhid three times. Then repeat seventy times: All glory be to Allah, all praise be to Allah, there is no god save Allah, Allah is the Greatest, and there is neither might nor power save with Allah, the All-high the All-great.
According to another narration, one should implore for Almighty Allah’s forgiveness after the previously mentioned statements.
It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer at the last of this night, reciting Surah al-Fatihah once and repeating Ayah al-Kursi and Surahs al-Tawhid, al-Falaq, al-Nas ten times each. After accomplishment, Surah al-Tawhid is repeated one hundred times.
It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer with Surah al-Fatihah once and Surah al-Tawhid fifty times. which brings about a tremendous reward, Sayyid Ibn Tawus says after citing this prayer, “When you finish the fourth units, you may mention Almighty Allah, invoke blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, and curse their enemies as many times as possible.
As regarding the reward of spending this whole night with acts of worship, it has been narrated that one who does so shall be considered having worshipped Almighty Allah with the worship of all the angels. Furthermore, to practice acts of worship at this night is equal to seventy-year worship. Moreover, as for one who succeeds to visit the tomb of Imam al- Hussayn (peace be upon him) at this night and spends the whole night there up to morning, Almighty Allah shall resurrect him, on the Judgment Day, spotted with the blood of Imam al-Hussayn (peace be upon him) in the group of those who were martyred with him.
Day of Ashura:
Stay away from food and water until late afternoon. (This is NOT a fast and thus should not be kept with the intention of fasting)
Focus on the great tragedy that took place on this day and avoid attending to your business/employment matters, laughing and unnecessary discussions. Recite Salawát as many times possible. When meeting fellow brothers, condole them in the following words:
May Allah make our reward and your reward great, for our grief for al-Hussayn, peace be upon him. May He place us and you from those who ask for his revenge with His representative, Imam al-Mahdi from the family of Mohammad, peace be upon them.
Recite Surah 112 al-Ikhlás 1000 times, or as many times as possible.
Say as many times as possible:
O Allah condemn and lay a curse upon the killers of al-Hussayn (peace be upon him). Would that we were with you. So that we could also share the great accomplishment with you.
Recite the following Salaat, dua’as and Ziyaarat, after Fajr Salaat, but before Zuhr Salaat.
-Salaat of Four raka`áts, divided into two prayers, in the following manner:
- a) First prayer: In the first raka`a, after Súra al- Hamd, recite Súra109 al-Káfirún In the second raka`a, after Súra al-Hamd, recite Súra al-Ikhlás.
- b) Second prayer: In the first raka`a, after Súra al- Hamd, recite Súra 33 al-Ahzáb . In the second raka`a, after Súra al-Hamd, recite Súra 63 al-Munáfiqún.
Al-Qama says: I asked [Imām ‘Alī al-Bāqir (a.s.)], “May I be sacrificed on you! What about one who is in distant lands and far off countries and cannot travel to him on that day ?”
Imām Muhammad ibn ‘Alī al-Bāqir (A.S.) said: "On Ashura Day, before noon, he should go to a desert or an elevated portion of his house and recite salutations to Imam Husain (a.s.), curse his killers excessively and pray two Rakats prayers. Then he should mourn and lament over Imam Husain (a.s.), order everyone in his house to lament him, hold a gathering in his house narrating Imam Husain’s tragedies and become restless on the tragedies of the Imam (a.s.), meet one another weeping and consoling one another over the Imam’s tragedies. If they do so, I guarantee that the Almighty Allāh will record all of those rewards for him. [References: Kamiluz Ziyaraat, Chapter 71, Tradition 7, page 162]
Imām Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rezā (a.s.) said:“Whoever avoids attending to his worldly affairs on the tenth of Muharram, Allāh will fulfill all the wishes and desires of this world as well as the hereafter. Whoever considers this day to be a day of mourning, sorrow and weeping for himself, Allāh the Glorified will make the day of Qiyāmah to be a day of rejoicing for him and his eyes will be cooled in Paradise on account of us.
And whoever considers the tenth of Muharram to be a day of prosperity and buys something for his house (considering it a good omen), then Allāh will not give him affluence in that thing. And on the day of Qiyāmah he will be made to arise along with Yazid, Ubaydullāh bin Ziyād and Umar ibn Sa'ad (may Allāh's curse be on all of them) and will be thrown into the lowest abyss of hell.”